Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

The Forward Discount Anomaly and the Risk Premium: A Survey of Recent Evidence

Contents:

Author Info

  • Charles Engel

Abstract

Forward exchange rate unbiasedness is rejected in tests from the current floating exchange rate era. This paper surveys advances in this area since the publication of Hodrick's (1987) survey. It documents that the change in the future exchange rate is generally negatively related to the forward discount. Properties of the expected forward forecast error are reviewed. Issues such as the relation of uncovered interest parity to real interest parity, and the implications of uncovered interest parity for cointegration of various quantities are discussed. The modeling and testing for risk premiums is surveyed. Included in this area are tests of the consumption CAPM, tests of the latent variable model, and portfolio-balance models of risk premiums. General equilibrium models of the risk premium are examined and their empirical implications explored. The survey does not cover the important areas of learning and peso problems, tests of rational expectations based on survey data, or the models of irrational expectations and speculative bubbles.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5312.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5312.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Nov 1996
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Journal of Empirical Finance, vol. 3, pp. 123-192, 1996.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5312

Note: IFM AP
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Phone: 617-868-3900
Email:
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  2. Cavaglia, Stefano & Verschoor, Willem F. C. & Wolff, Christian C. P., 1993. "Further evidence on exchange rate expectations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 78-98, February.
  3. David K. Backus & Allan W. Gregory & Chris I. Telmer, 1992. "Accounting for Forward Rates in Markets for Foreign Currency," Working Papers 92-18b, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  4. Baillie, Richard T. & Bollerslev, Tim, 1990. "A multivariate generalized ARCH approach to modeling risk premia in forward foreign exchange rate markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 309-324, September.
  5. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1988. "Recent Estimates of Time-Variation in the Conditional Variance and in the Exchange Risk Premium," NBER Working Papers 2367, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Bachman, Daniel, 1992. "The effect of political risk on the forward exchange bias: the case of elections," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 208-219, April.
  7. Diebold, Francis X & Gardeazabal, Javier & Yilmaz, Kamil, 1994. " On Cointegration and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 727-35, June.
  8. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1991. "A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  9. Lewis, Karen K, 1990. " The Behavior of Eurocurrency Returns across Different Holding Periods and Monetary Regimes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1211-36, September.
  10. Ito, Takatoshi & Quah, Danny, 1989. "Hypothesis Testing with Restricted Spectral Density Matrices, with an Application to Uncovered Interest Parity," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 30(1), pages 203-15, February.
  11. Geert Bekaert & Robert J. Hodrick & David A. Marshall, 1994. "The implications of first-order risk aversion for asset market risk premiums," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 94-22, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Baillie, R.T. & Bollerslev, T., 1993. "The Long Memory of the Foreward Premium," Papers 9203, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  13. Anne Sibert, 1987. "The risk premium in the foreign exchange market," Research Working Paper 87-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  14. Kaminsky, Graciela & Peruga, Rodrigo, 1991. "Credibility crises: the dollar in the early 1980s," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 170-192, June.
  15. Huang, Roger D, 1989. " An Analysis of Intertemporal Pricing for Forward Foreign Exchange Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 183-94, March.
  16. E. Scott Mayfield & Robert G. Murphy, 1993. "Interest Rate Parity And The Exchange Risk Premium: Evidence From Panel Data," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 239, Boston College Department of Economics.
  17. Richard K. Lyons, 1986. "Tests of the foreign exchange risk premium using the expected second moments implied by option pricing," International Finance Discussion Papers 290, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  18. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
  19. Hodrick, Robert J., 1989. "U.S. International capital flows: Perspectives from rational maximizing models," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 231-288, January.
  20. Froot, Kenneth A. & Ito, Takatoshi, 1989. "On the consistency of short-run and long-run exchange rate expectations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 487-510, December.
  21. Boyer, Russell S & Adams, F Charles, 1988. "Forward Premia and Risk Premia in a Simple Model of Exchange Rate Determination," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(4), pages 633-44, November.
  22. Rene M. Stulz, 1994. "International Portfolio Choice and Asset Pricing: An Integrative Survey," NBER Working Papers 4645, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Levine, Ross, 1991. "An empirical inquiry into the nature of the forward exchange rate bias," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3-4), pages 359-369, May.
  24. Liu, Peter C. & Maddala, G. S., 1992. "Rationality of survey data and tests for market efficiency in the foreign exchange markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 366-381, August.
  25. Huang, Roger D, 1990. "Risk and Parity in Purchasing Power," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(3), pages 338-56, August.
  26. Frenkel, Jacob A. & Razin, Assaf, 1980. "Stochastic prices and tests of efficiency of foreign exchange markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 165-170.
  27. Lars Peter Hansen & Robert J. Hodrick, 1983. "Risk Averse Speculation in the Forward Foreign Exchange Market: An Econometric Analysis of Linear Models," NBER Chapters, in: Exchange Rates and International Macroeconomics, pages 113-152 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Robert J. Hodrick & Sanjay Srivastava, 1983. "An Investigation of Risk and Return in Forward Foreign Exchange," NBER Working Papers 1180, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Hakkio, Craig S. & Rush, Mark, 1989. "Market efficiency and cointegration: an application to the sterling and deutschemark exchange markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 75-88, March.
  30. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1982. "Interest rates and currency prices in a two-country world," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 335-359.
  31. Flood, Robert P & Rose, Andrew K, 1994. "Fixes: Of the Forward Discount Puzzle," CEPR Discussion Papers 1090, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  32. Charles Engel, 1990. "The risk premium and the liquidity premium in foreign exchange markets," Research Working Paper 90-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  33. Frankel, Jeff & Froot, Ken, 1986. "Using Survey Data to Test Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1972q8wm, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  34. Anne Sibert, 1992. "Can unconventional preferences explain risk premia in the foreign exchange markets?," Research Working Paper 92-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  35. Byers, J. D. & Peel, D. A., 1991. "Some evidence on the efficiency of the sterling-dollar and sterling-franc forward exchange rates in the interwar period," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 317-322, March.
  36. Taylor, Mark P, 1988. "A DYMIMIC Model of Forward Foreign Exchange Risk, with Estimates for Three Major Exchange Rates," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 56(1), pages 55-68, March.
  37. Mehra, Rajnish & Prescott, Edward C., 1985. "The equity premium: A puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 145-161, March.
  38. Smith, William T., 1991. "Forward exchange rates in general equilibrium," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 497-511, December.
  39. Hodrick, Robert J., 1989. "Risk, uncertainty, and exchange rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 433-459, May.
  40. Goodhart, Charles A E & Taylor, Mark P, 1992. "Why Don't Individuals Speculate in the Forward Foreign Exchange Market?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 39(1), pages 1-13, February.
  41. Sephton, Peter S. & Larsen, Hans K., 1991. "Tests of exchange market efficiency: fragile evidence from cointegration tests," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 561-570, December.
  42. Bossaerts, Peter & Hillion, Pierre, 1991. "Market Microstructure Effects of Government Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(3), pages 513-41.
  43. Frankel, Jeffrey A., 1979. "The diversifiability of exchange risk," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 379-393, August.
  44. McFarland, James W & McMahon, Patrick C & Ngama, Yerima, 1994. "Forward exchange rates and expectations during the 1920s: A re-examination of the evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 627-636, December.
  45. Campbell, John Y. & Clarida, Richard H., 1987. "The Term Structure of Euromarket Interest Rates: An Empirical Investigation," Scholarly Articles 3353759, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  46. Froot, Kenneth A & Frankel, Jeffrey A, 1989. "Forward Discount Bias: Is It an Exchange Risk Premium?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(1), pages 139-61, February.
  47. Hansen, Lars Peter & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1991. "Implications of Security Market Data for Models of Dynamic Economies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 225-62, April.
  48. Alberto Giovannini & Philippe Jorion, 1989. "The Time-Variation of Risk and Return in the Foreign Exchange and Stock Markets," NBER Working Papers 2573, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  49. Boyle, Glenn W, 1990. " International Interest Rates, Exchange Rates, and the Stochastic Structure of Supply," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 655-71, June.
  50. Fama, Eugene F., 1984. "Forward and spot exchange rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 319-338, November.
  51. Liu, Peter C & Maddala, G S, 1992. "Using Survey Data to Test Market Efficiency in the Foreign Exchange Markets," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 303-14.
  52. Breen, William & Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1989. " Economic Significance of Predictable Variations in Stock Index Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(5), pages 1177-89, December.
  53. Ito, T., 1993. "Short-Run and Long-Run Expectationss of the Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1661, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  54. Engel, Charles, 1992. "On the foreign exchange risk premium in a general equilibrium model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3-4), pages 305-319, May.
  55. Kaminsky, Graciela & Peruga, Rodrigo, 1990. "Can a time-varying risk premium explain excess returns in the forward market for foreign exchange?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 47-70, February.
  56. MacDonald, Ronald & Torrance, Thomas S, 1990. "Expectations Formation and Risk in Four Foreign Exchange Markets," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(3), pages 544-61, July.
  57. Martin D.D. Evans, 1995. "Peso Problems: Their Theoretical and Empirical Implications," Working Papers 95-05, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  58. Pope, Peter F. & Peel, David A., 1991. "Forward foreign exchange rates and risk premia--a reappraisal," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 443-456, September.
  59. Gokey, Timothy C, 1994. "What explains the risk premium in foreign exchange returns?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 729-738, December.
  60. Levich, Richard M. & Thomas, Lee III, 1993. "The significance of technical trading-rule profits in the foreign exchange market: a bootstrap approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 451-474, October.
  61. Bekaert, Geert & Hodrick, Robert J., 1993. "On biases in the measurement of foreign exchange risk premiums," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 115-138, April.
  62. Dutton, John, 1993. "Real and Monetary Shocks and Risk Premia in Forward Markets for Foreign Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 731-54, November.
  63. McCallum, Bennett T., 1994. "A reconsideration of the uncovered interest parity relationship," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 105-132, February.
  64. Martin D. Evans & Karen K. Lewis, 1992. "Trends in Excess Returns in Currency and Bond Markets," Working Papers 92-32, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  65. Michael T. Belongia & Mack Ott, 1987. "The U. S. monetary policy regime, interest differentials and dollar exchange rate risk premia," Working Papers 1987-009, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  66. Bomhoff, E.J. & Koedijk, C.G., 1988. "Bilateral exchange rates and risk premia," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3108715, Tilburg University.
  67. Takatoshi Ito, 1990. "Foreign Exchange Rate Expectations: Micro Survey Data," NBER Working Papers 2679, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  68. Linda L. Tesar & Ingrid M. Werner, 1994. "International Equity Transactions and U.S. Portfolio Choice," NBER Working Papers 4611, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  69. Giovannini, Alberto & Jorion, Philippe, 1987. "Interest rates and risk premia in the stock market and in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 107-123, March.
  70. Taylor, Mark P, 1989. "Expectations, Risk and Uncertainty in the Foreign Exchange Market: Some Results Based on Survey Data," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 57(2), pages 142-53, June.
  71. Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  72. Fabio Canova & Takatoshi Ito, 1991. "On Time-Series Properties of Time-Varying Risk Premium in the Yen/Dollar Exchange Market," NBER Working Papers 2678, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  73. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1991. "Asset returns and intertemporal preferences," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 39-71, February.
  74. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Kenneth A. Froot, 1987. "Using Survey Data to Test Some Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," NBER Working Papers 1672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  75. Cumby, Robert E. & Huizinga, John, 1992. "Investigating the correlation of unobserved expectations : Expected returns in equity and foreign exchange markets and other examples," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 217-253, November.
  76. Lewis, Karen K, 1989. "Changing Beliefs and Systematic Rational Forecast Errors with Evidence from Foreign Exchange," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 621-36, September.
  77. Canova, Fabio & Marrinan, Jane, 1993. "Profits, risk, and uncertainty in foreign exchange markets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 259-286, November.
  78. MacDonald, Ronald & Taylor, Mark P., 1989. "Foreign exchange market efficiency and cointegration : Some evidence from the recent float," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 63-68.
  79. Bernard Dumas, 1993. "Partial- Vs. General-Equilibrium Models of the International Capital Market," NBER Working Papers 4446, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  80. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
  81. Engel, Charles M., 1984. "Testing for the absence of expected real profits from forward market speculation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3-4), pages 299-308, November.
  82. Dwyer, Gerald Jr. & Wallace, Myles S., 1992. "Cointegration and market efficiency," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 318-327, August.
  83. Engel, Charles & Hamilton, James D, 1990. "Long Swings in the Dollar: Are They in the Data and Do Markets Know It?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 689-713, September.
  84. Constantinides,George & Duffie,Darrel, 1992. "Asset pricing with heterogeneous consumers," Discussion Paper Serie A 381, University of Bonn, Germany.
  85. Alexander, CO & A Johnson, 1992. "Are foreign exchange markets really efficient?," Discussion Papers in Economics 10/92, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
  86. Kenneth A. Froot, 1990. "Short Rates and Expected Asset Returns," NBER Working Papers 3247, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  87. Richard C. Marston, 1994. "Tests of Three Parity Conditions: Distinguishing Risk Premia and Systematic Forecast Errors," NBER Working Papers 4923, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  88. Lewis, K.K., 1994. "Puzzles in international Financial Markets," Weiss Center Working Papers 94-7, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
  89. Goodhart, Charles A E & McMahon, Patrick C & Ngama, Yerima Lawan, 1992. "Does the Forward Premium/Discount Help to Predict the Future Change in the Exchange Rate?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 39(2), pages 129-40, May.
  90. Baillie, Richard T & Lippens, Robert E & McMahon, Patrick C, 1983. "Testing Rational Expectations and Efficiency in the Foreign Exchange Market," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(3), pages 553-63, May.
  91. Barnhart, Scott W. & Szakmary, Andrew C., 1991. "Testing the Unbiased Forward Rate Hypothesis: Evidence on Unit Roots, Co-Integration, and Stochastic Coefficients," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 245-267, June.
  92. McCurdy, Thomas H & Morgan, Ieuan G, 1991. "Tests for a Systematic Risk Component in Deviations from Uncovered Interest Rate Parity," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(3), pages 587-602, May.
  93. Crowder, William J, 1994. "Foreign exchange market efficiency and common stochastic trends," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 551-564, October.
  94. Fraser, Patricia & Taylor, Mark P, 1990. "Modelling Risk in the Interwar Foreign Exchange Market," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 37(3), pages 241-58, August.
  95. Nijman, Theo E & Palm, Franz C & Wolff, Christian C P, 1993. "Premia in Forward Foreign Exchange as Unobserved Components: A Note," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(3), pages 361-65, July.
  96. Tiff Macklem, R., 1991. "Forward exchange rates and risk premiums in artificial economies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 365-391, September.
  97. Paul R. Krugman, 1981. "Consumption Preferences, Asset Demands, and Distribution Effects in International Financial Markets," NBER Working Papers 0651, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  98. Ross Levine, 1987. "The pricing of forward exchange rates," International Finance Discussion Papers 312, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  99. McCulloch, J Huston, 1975. "Operational Aspects of the Siegel Paradox: Comment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 170-72, February.
  100. Robert J. Hodrick & Sanjay Srivastava, 1986. "The Covariation of Risk Premiums and Expected Future Spot Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 1749, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  101. Gul, Faruk, 1991. "A Theory of Disappointment Aversion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 667-86, May.
  102. Modjtahedi, Bagher, 1991. "Multiple maturities and time-varying risk premia in forward exchange markets : An econometric analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 69-86, February.
  103. Frankel, Jeffrey A, 1979. "On the Mark: A Theory of Floating Exchange Rates Based on Real Interest Differentials," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(4), pages 610-22, September.
  104. Bekaert, Geert & Hodrick, Robert J, 1992. " Characterizing Predictable Components in Excess Returns on Equity and Foreign Exchange Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 467-509, June.
  105. Marco Tronzano, 1992. "Efficiency in German and Japanese foreign exchange markets: Evidence from cointegration techniques," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 128(1), pages 1-20, March.
  106. Baffes, John, 1994. "Does comovement among exchange rates imply market inefficiency?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 273-280.
  107. Hakkio, Craig S, 1981. "Expectations and the Forward Exchange Rate," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 22(3), pages 663-78, October.
  108. Cornell, Bradford, 1989. "The impact of data errors on measurement of the foreign exchange risk premium," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 147-157, March.
  109. Choi, Seungmook & Kim, Benjamin J. C., 1991. "Monetary policy regime changes and the risk premium in the foreign exchange markets : A GARCH application," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 447-452, December.
  110. Black, Stanley W. & Salemi, Michael K., 1988. "FIML estimation of the dollar-deutschemark risk premium in a portfolio model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3-4), pages 205-224, November.
  111. Mark, Nelson C., 1988. "Time-varying betas and risk premia in the pricing of forward foreign exchange contracts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 335-354, December.
  112. Mark, Nelson C., 1985. "On time varying risk premia in the foreign exchange market: An econometric analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 3-18, July.
  113. Frankel, Jeffrey A., 1988. "Recent Estimates of the Time-Variation in the Conditional Variance and in the Exchange Risk Premium," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt23c9q73d, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  114. Charles Engel, 1991. "Can the Markov switching model forecast exchange rates?," Research Working Paper 91-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  115. Robert E. Cumby, 1987. "Is it Risk? Explaining Deviations from Uncovered Interest Parity," NBER Working Papers 2380, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  116. Baillie, Richard T & Bollerslev, Tim, 1989. " Common Stochastic Trends in a System of Exchange Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 167-81, March.
  117. Labadie, Pamela, 1986. "Comparative Dynamics and Risk Premia in an Overlapping Generations Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 139-52, January.
  118. Alec Chrystal, K. & Thornton, Daniel L., 1988. "On the informational content of spot and forward exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 321-330, September.
  119. Korajczyk, Robert A, 1985. "The Pricing of Forward Contracts for Foreign Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(2), pages 346-68, April.
  120. Karen K. Lewis, 1994. "Puzzles in International Financial Markets," NBER Working Papers 4951, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  121. Hakkio, Craig, 1986. "Does the exchange rate follow a random walk? A Monte Carlo study of four tests for a random walk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 221-229, June.
  122. Lewis, Karen K., 1988. "Testing the portfolio balance model: A multi-lateral approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 109-127, February.
  123. Bomhoff, Eduard J. & Koedijk, Kees G., 1988. "Bilateral exchange rates and risk premia," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 205-220, June.
  124. Canova, Fabio, 1991. "An Empirical Analysis of Ex Ante Profits from Forward Speculation in Foreign Exchange Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(3), pages 489-96, August.
  125. Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon & Park, Young B., 1992. "Further tests on the forward exchange rate unbiasedness hypothesis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 325-331, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page.

Lists

This item is featured on the following reading lists or Wikipedia pages:

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.