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The pricing of forward exchange rates

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  • Ross Levine

Abstract

This paper addresses the question: do risk premia account for the observed time-varying discrepancies between forward and corresponding future spot exchange rates? A simple theoretical framework is used to derive testable restrictions on the parameters of a multivariate regression model. Using various econometric procedures and different estimation periods, the data reject the restrictions. In contrast to past investigations, the empirical results are inconsistent with a world in which time-varying risk premia are the sole determinants of observed deviations from the unbiased expectations hypothesis. Anticipated real exchange rate movements may explain the rejection.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series International Finance Discussion Papers with number 312.

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Date of creation: 1987
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:312

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Keywords: Foreign exchange futures ; Prices ; Foreign exchange rates;

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References

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  1. Frenkel, Jacob A & Levich, Richard M, 1977. "Transaction Costs and Interest Arbitrage: Tranquil versus Turbulent Periods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1209-26, December.
  2. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1982. "Interest rates and currency prices in a two-country world," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 335-359.
  3. McCormick, Frank, 1979. "Covered Interest Arbitrage: Unexploited Profits? Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(2), pages 411-17, April.
  4. J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  5. Ross Levine, 1986. "An international arbitrage pricing model with PPP deviations," International Finance Discussion Papers 294, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Krasker, William S., 1980. "The `peso problem' in testing the efficiency of forward exchange markets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 269-276, April.
  7. Frankel, Jeff & Froot, Ken, 1986. "Using Survey Data to Test Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1972q8wm, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  8. Isard, Peter, 1977. "How Far Can We Push the "Law of One Price"?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 942-48, December.
  9. John Huizinga & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1984. "Inflation and Real Interest Rates on Assets with Different Risk Characteristics," NBER Working Papers 1333, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Merrick, John Jr. & Saunders, Anthony, 1986. "International expected real interest rates: New tests of the parity hypothesis and U.S. fiscal policy effects," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 313-322, November.
  11. Kravis, Irving B. & Lipsey, Robert E., 1978. "Price behavior in the light of balance of payments theories," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 193-246, May.
  12. Solnik, Bruno, 1983. " International Arbitrage Pricing Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 449-57, May.
  13. Hsieh, David A., 1982. "The determination of the real exchange rate : The productivity approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3-4), pages 355-362, May.
  14. Fama, Eugene F., 1984. "Forward and spot exchange rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 319-338, November.
  15. Korajczyk, Robert A, 1985. "The Pricing of Forward Contracts for Foreign Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(2), pages 346-68, April.
  16. Michael R. Darby, 1983. "Movements in Purchasing Power Parity: The Short and Long Runs," NBER Chapters, in: The International Transmission of Inflation, pages 462-477 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Adler, Michael & Lehmann, Bruce, 1983. " Deviations from Purchasing Power Parity in the Long Run," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1471-87, December.
  18. Levich, Richard M., 1985. "Empirical studies of exchange rates: Price behavior, rate determination and market efficiency," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 19, pages 979-1040 Elsevier.
  19. Frank McCormick, 1979. "Covered-interest arbitrage: unexploited profits: comment," International Finance Discussion Papers 132, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  20. Lars Peter Hansen & Robert J. Hodrick, 1983. "Risk Averse Speculation in the Forward Foreign Exchange Market: An Econometric Analysis of Linear Models," NBER Chapters, in: Exchange Rates and International Macroeconomics, pages 113-152 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Fama, Eugene F, 1976. "Inflation Uncertainty and Expected Returns on Treasury Bills," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(3), pages 427-48, June.
  22. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Kenneth A. Froot, 1985. "Using Survey Data to Test Some Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," NBER Working Papers 1672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Fama, Eugene F. & Gibbons, Michael R., 1984. "A comparison of inflation forecasts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 327-348, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Richard T. Baillie & William P. Osterberg, 1998. "Central bank intervention and overnight uncovered interest rate parity," Working Paper 9823, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  2. Tai, Chu-Sheng, 1999. "Time-varying risk premia in foreign exchange and equity markets: evidence from Asia-Pacific countries," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(3-4), pages 291-316, November.
  3. Mun, Kyung-Chun & Morgan, George Emir, 2003. "Risk premia on foreign exchange: a direct approach," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 231-250, July.
  4. Douglas J. Hodgson & Oliver Linton & Keith Vorkink, 2004. "Testing forward exchange rate unbiasedness efficiently: a semiparametric approach," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 325-353, November.
  5. John Pippenger, 1991. "Forward rates as predictors of future spot rates in small open economies: The case of Kuwait," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 183-201, June.
  6. Charles Engel, 1995. "The Forward Discount Anomaly and the Risk Premium: A Survey of Recent Evidence," NBER Working Papers 5312, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Peggy Swanson, 1998. "Spot and forward exchange rates as predictors of future spot rates: trends in exchange market value and the contribution of new information," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 129-138, June.
  8. HeeJoon Kang, 1992. "Forward exchange rates as unbiased predictors of future spot rates a review and re-interpretation," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 215-232, June.
  9. Peter C.B. Phillips & James W. McFarland & Patrick C. McMahon, 1994. "Robust Tests of Forward Exchange Market Efficiency with Empirical Evidence from the 1920's," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1080, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  10. Shively, Philip A., 2000. "Stationary time-varying risk premia in forward foreign exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 273-288, April.
  11. Wu, Jyh-Lin & Chen, Show-Lin, 1998. "Foreign exchange market efficiency revisited," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 831-838, October.

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