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Retailing and international trade: A survey of the literature

Listed author(s):
  • Raff, Horst
  • Schmitt, Nicolas

This paper reviews the literature on how retailers, by their individual behavior or as a group, influence international trade flows, and on how trade affects the structure of the retail industry. After reviewing the evidence, we discuss theoretical contributions set in an oligopolistic, game-theoretic framework. An important message coming from these contributions is that when trade liberalization occurs, there is a strong incentive to use vertical restraints to soften price competition in order to mitigate the pro-competitive impact of trade liberalization. We then review contributions that consider retailing at the industry level to discuss what we know about the impact of trade liberalization on structural changes in retailing, such as changes in market concentration and the size distribution of retail firms, on retailers' assortments and even on upfront payments by manufacturers, such as slotting allowances, to gain access to retail shelves. We conclude by discussing some directions for future research.

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File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/107704/1/820204498.pdf
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Paper provided by Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics in its series Economics Working Papers with number 2015-02.

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Date of creation: 2015
Handle: RePEc:zbw:cauewp:201502
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  1. Miyagiwa, Kaz, 1993. "Reforming the japanese distribution system: will it boost exports to Japan?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 321-336, December.
  2. Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 2008. "Pass-Through of Exchange Rates to Consumption Prices: What Has Changed and Why?," NBER Chapters,in: International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17), pages 139-176 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2009. "Buyer power in international markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 222-229, November.
  4. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2016. "Manufacturers and retailers in the global economy," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(2), pages 685-706, May.
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  6. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2007. "Why parallel trade may raise producers' profits," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 434-447, April.
  7. Javorcik, Beata S. & Li, Yue, 2013. "Do the biggest aisles serve a brighter future? Global retail chains and their implications for Romania," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 348-363.
  8. Cédric Durand, 2007. "Externalities from foreign direct investment in the Mexican retailing sector," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(3), pages 393-411, May.
  9. Timothy Dunne & J. Bradford Jensen & Mark J. Roberts, 2009. "Introduction to "Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data"," NBER Chapters,in: Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data, pages 1-12 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Linda S. Goldberg & José Manuel Campa, 2006. "Distribution Margins, Imported Inputs, and the Sensitivity of the CPI to Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 12121, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Emily Blanchard & Tatyana Chesnokova & Gerald Willmann, 2013. "Private Labels and International Trade: Trading Variety for Volume," School of Economics Working Papers 2013-01, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  12. Beata Javorcik & Wolfgang Keller & James Tybout, 2008. "Openness and Industrial Response in a Wal-Mart World: A Case Study of Mexican Soaps, Detergents and Surfactant Producers," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(12), pages 1558-1580, December.
  13. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Why Do Consumer Prices React Less Than Import Prices to Exchange Rates?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 662-670, 04/05.
  14. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2006. "Exclusive dealing and common agency in international markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 485-503, March.
  15. Laura Nurski & Frank Verboven, 2016. "Exclusive Dealing as a Barrier to Entry? Evidence from Automobiles," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 83(3), pages 1156-1188.
  16. Fargeix, Andre & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 1989. "The effect of tariffs in markets with vertical restraints," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-2), pages 99-117, February.
  17. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.
  18. Javier Miranda & Shawn Klimek & Ron Jarmin, 2004. "Firm Entry and Exit in the U.S. Retail Sector, 1977-1997," Working Papers 04-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  19. Matthew T. Cole & Carsten Eckel, 2014. "Tariffs Passing Through Retailers: Do Tariffs Actually Protect Domestic Manufacturers?," Working Papers 1404, Florida International University, Department of Economics.
  20. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2005. "Endogenous vertical restraints in international trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1877-1889, October.
  21. Ahn, JaeBin & Khandelwal, Amit K. & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2011. "The role of intermediaries in facilitating trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 73-85, May.
  22. Leslie M. Marx & Greg Shaffer, 2007. "Upfront payments and exclusion in downstream markets," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(3), pages 823-843, 09.
  23. Hellerstein, Rebecca, 2008. "Who bears the cost of a change in the exchange rate? Pass-through accounting for the case of beer," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 14-32, September.
  24. Carolyn L. Evans & James Harrigan, 2005. "Distance, Time, and Specialization: Lean Retailing in General Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 292-313, March.
  25. Roger G. Noll, 2005. ""Buyer Power" and Economic Policy," Discussion Papers 04-008, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  26. Head, Keith & Jing, Ran & Swenson, Deborah L., 2014. "From Beijing to Bentonville: Do multinational retailers link markets?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 79-92.
  27. Sullivan, Mary W, 1997. "Slotting Allowances and the Market for New Products," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 461-493, October.
  28. Martin Richardson, 2004. "Trade Policy and Access to Retail Distribution," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 676-688, 09.
  29. Emek Basker & Shawn Klimek & Pham Hoang Van, 2012. "Supersize It: The Growth of Retail Chains and the Rise of the “Big-Box” Store," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 541-582, 09.
  30. Timothy Dunne & J. Bradford Jensen & Mark J. Roberts, 2009. "Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number dunn05-1, June.
  31. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Enrico Pinali, 2008. "Market Structure in the Distribution Sector and Merchandise Trade," OECD Trade Policy Papers 68, OECD Publishing.
  32. Robert Z. Lawrence, 1991. "Efficient or Exclusionist: The Import Behavior of Japanese Corporate Groups," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 311-341.
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