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Causal effects on employment after first birth - A dynamic treatment approach -

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  • Fitzenberger, B.

    (Externe publicaties SBE)

  • Sommerfeld, K.

    (External organisation)

  • Steffes, S.

    (External organisation)

Abstract

The effects of childbirth on future labor market outcomes are a key issue for policy discussion. This paper implements a dynamic treatment approach to estimate the effect of having the first child now versus later on future employment for the case of Germany, a country with a long maternity leave coverage. Effect heterogeneity is assessed by estimating ex post outcome regressions. Based on SOEP data, we provide estimates at a monthly frequency. The results show that there are very strong negative employment effects after childbirth. Although the employment loss is reduced over the first five years following childbirth, it does not level off to zero. The employment loss is lower for mothers with a university degree. It is especially high for medium-skilled mothers with long prebirth employment experience. We find a significant reduction in the employment loss for more recent childbirths.

Suggested Citation

  • Fitzenberger, B. & Sommerfeld, K. & Steffes, S., 2013. "Causal effects on employment after first birth - A dynamic treatment approach -," Research Memorandum 031, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
  • Handle: RePEc:unm:umagsb:2013031
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    Cited by:

    1. Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia & Pamminger, Christoph & Weber, Andrea & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2014. "When Is The Best Time To Give Birth?," Economics Series 308, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    2. Sylvia Frühwirth-Schnatter & Christoph Pamminger & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2016. "Mothers' long-run career patterns after first birth," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(3), pages 707-725, June.
    3. Bicakova, Alena & Kaliskova, Klara, 2016. "Career Breaks after Childbirth: The Impact of Family Leave Reforms in the Czech Republic," IZA Discussion Papers 10149, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Francesconi, Marco & Parey, Matthias, 2018. "Early Gender Gaps Among University Graduates," CEPR Discussion Papers 12754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Arbatli, Cemal Eren & Ashraf, Quamrul & Galor, Oded & Klemp, Marc, 2018. "Diversity and Conflict," IZA Discussion Papers 11487, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. repec:bla:obuest:v:79:y:2017:i:5:p:689-716 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. V. Joseph Hotz & Per Johansson & Arizo Karimi, 2017. "Parenthood, Family Friendly Firms, and the Gender Gaps in Early Work Careers," NBER Working Papers 24173, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Melanie Arntz & Stephan Dlugosz & Ralf A. Wilke, 2017. "The Sorting of Female Careers after First Birth: A Competing Risks Analysis of Maternity Leave Duration," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 79(5), pages 689-716, October.
    9. Biewen, Martin & Seifert, Stefanie, 2016. "Potential Parenthood and Career Progression of Men and Women: A Simultaneous Hazards Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 10050, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Götz Rohwer, 2016. "Treatment and Control Groups in a Dynamic Setting," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 84(1), pages 63-78, April.
    11. Picchio, Matteo & Pigini, Claudia & Staffolani, Stefano & Verashchagina, Alina, 2018. "If Not Now, When? The Timing of Childbirth and Labour Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 11270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Peter Egger & Valeria Merlo & Martin Ruf & Georg Wamser, 2015. "Consequences of the New UK Tax Exemption System: Evidence from Micro‐level Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 125(589), pages 1764-1789, December.
    13. OKAMURA Kazuaki & ISLAM Nizamul, 2017. "The Effects of the Timing of Childbirth on Female Labour Supply: An Analysis using the Sequential Matching Approach," LISER Working Paper Series 2017-14, LISER.
    14. Fortin, Nicole M. & Bell, Brian & Böhm, Michael, 2017. "Top earnings inequality and the gender pay gap: Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 107-123.
    15. repec:bla:econom:v:84:y:2017:i:334:p:180-209 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2013. "Can Parents' Right to Work Part-Time Hurt Childbearing-Aged Women? A Natural Experiment with Administrative Data," IZA Discussion Papers 7509, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    17. Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia & Pamminger, Christoph & Weber, Andrea & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2014. "When Is The Best Time To Give Birth - Career Effects Of Early Birth Decisions," CEPR Discussion Papers 10132, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. repec:dem:demres:v:37:y:2017:i:13 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Wrohlich, Katharina & Unterhofer, Ulrike, 2017. "External Effects of 'Daddy Months': How Fathers' Parental Leave Changes Social Norms," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168297, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    20. Matias Busso & Dario Romero Fonseca, 2015. "Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America: Patterns and Explanations," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0187, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    21. Chirvi, Malte, 2017. "Arbeiten Frauen aufgrund des Ehegattensplittings weniger? Ein quasi-experimenteller Ansatz für Deutschland," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 217, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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