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The effect of the timing and spacing of births on the level of labor market involvement of married women

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  • Kenneth Troske
  • Alexandru Voicu

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Abstract

We analyze the effect of the timing and spacing of births on the labor supply of married women in a framework that accounts for the endogeneity of the labor market and fertility decisions, for the heterogeneity of the effects of children on labor supply and their correlation with the fertility decisions, and for the correlation of sequential labor market decisions. Delaying the first birth leads to higher pre-natal levels of labor market involvement and reduces the negative effect of the first child on labor supply. The effect of the second child increases with the spacing of the two births as women, returning to work after the first birth, finance child care time increasingly through reductions in market time. Individual heterogeneity is considerable; women with lower propensity for children have the first birth later in life and space subsequent births more closely together, work more before the birth of the first child, but face larger effects of children on their labor supply. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth Troske & Alexandru Voicu, 2013. "The effect of the timing and spacing of births on the level of labor market involvement of married women," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 483-521, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:45:y:2013:i:1:p:483-521
    DOI: 10.1007/s00181-012-0620-2
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    Cited by:

    1. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin & Steffes, Susanne, 2013. "Causal effects on employment after first birth — A dynamic treatment approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 49-62.
    2. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts & Mary Beth Walker, 2017. "Impact of first birth career interruption on earnings: evidence from administrative data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(35), pages 3509-3522, July.
    3. Lionel Wilner, 2016. "Worker-firm matching and the parenthood pay gap: Evidence from linked employer-employee data," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(4), pages 991-1023, October.
    4. Sylvia Frühwirth-Schnatter & Christoph Pamminger & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2016. "Mothers' long-run career patterns after first birth," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(3), pages 707-725, June.
    5. Neumeier, Christian & Sorensen, Todd A. & Webber, Douglas A., 2017. "The Implicit Costs of Motherhood over the Lifecycle: Cross-Cohort Evidence from Administrative Longitudinal Data," IZA Discussion Papers 10558, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Massimiliano Bratti & Laura Cavalli, 2014. "Delayed First Birth and New Mothers’ Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Biological Fertility Shocks," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 30(1), pages 35-63, February.
    7. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:31-37 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Picchio, Matteo & Pigini, Claudia & Staffolani, Stefano & Verashchagina, Alina, 2018. "If Not Now, When? The Timing of Childbirth and Labour Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 11270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:19337561 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Xiaoyan Chen Youderian, 2014. "The motherhood wage penalty and non-working women," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(2), pages 757-765.
    11. Angelov, Nikolay & Johansson, Per & Lee, Myoung-jae, 2017. "The effect of fertility timing on labor market work duration," Working Paper Series 2017:13, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    12. Kasey S. Buckles & Elizabeth L. Munnich, 2012. "Birth Spacing and Sibling Outcomes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(3), pages 613-642.
    13. repec:dem:demres:v:37:y:2017:i:13 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Massimiliano Bratti, 2015. "Fertility postponement and labor market outcomes," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 117-117, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Timing and spacing of births; Female labor supply; Endogenous fertility decisions; Heterogeneous children effects; Multinomial probit model; Gibbs sampler; C11; C15; J13; J22;

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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