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The Impact of Children on Wages, Job Tenure, and the Division of Household Labour


  • Millimet, Daniel L


In the absence of typical exclusion restrictions, covariance restrictions are used to obtain estimates of the effects of children on household behaviour. Using data from the PSID on two age samples, children are found to have a significant impact on many household decisions. However, while in the young sample exogenous fertility cannot be rejected, in the older sample this is not the case. Finally, if the average household had one less child, the male-female wage differential would decrease by 9.5 %.

Suggested Citation

  • Millimet, Daniel L, 2000. "The Impact of Children on Wages, Job Tenure, and the Division of Household Labour," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 139-157, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecj:econjl:v:110:y:2000:i:462:p:c139-57

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanan G. Jacoby & Emmanuel Skoufias, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 311-335.
    2. Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-685, May.
    3. Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi, 1995. "Child labor : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1454, The World Bank.
    4. Nardinelli, Clark, 1980. "Child Labor and the Factory Acts," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(04), pages 739-755, December.
    5. Baland, J.M. & Robinson, J.A., 1998. "A Model of Child Labor," Papers 206, Notre-Dame de la Paix, Sciences Economiques et Sociales.
    6. Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
    7. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    8. Swaminathan, Madhura, 1998. "Economic growth and the persistence of child labor: Evidence from an Indian city," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1513-1528, August.
    9. Mark R. Rosenzweig, 1982. "Educational Subsidy, Agricultural Development, and Fertility Change," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(1), pages 67-88.
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    Cited by:

    1. Charles H. Mullin & Ping Wang, 2002. "The Timing of Childbearing among Heterogeneous Women in Dynamic General Equilibrium," NBER Working Papers 9231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin & Steffes, Susanne, 2013. "Causal effects on employment after first birth — A dynamic treatment approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 49-62.
    3. Sara Cools & Marte Strøm, 2016. "Parenthood wage penalties in a double income society," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 391-416, June.
    4. Kim, Jungho & Aassve, Arnstein, 2006. "Fertility and its Consequence on Family Labour Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 2162, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Arnaud Dupuy & Daniel Fernandez-Kranz, 2011. "International differences in the family gap in pay: the role of labour market institutions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 413-438.
    6. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-01361443 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Nizalova, Olena Y. & Sliusarenko, Tamara, 2013. "Motherhood Wage Penalty in Times of Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 7810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Simonsen, Marianne & Skipper, Lars, 2012. "The family gap in wages: What wombmates reveal," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 102-112.
    9. Tobing, Elwin, 2011. "Taxation, human capital formation, and long-run growth with private investment in education," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 48-60, February.
    10. Brooks, Chris & Fenton, Evelyn M. & Walker, James T., 2014. "Gender and the evaluation of research," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 990-1001.

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