The costs of motherhood: an analysis using matching estimators
We estimate the effect of motherhood on wages using matching. We distinguish between net and direct effects. The net effect includes the total wage costs, whereas the direct represents the causal effect. Since covariates are likely affected by motherhood, the latter effect is not immediately uncovered. We therefore implement two strategies: first, we confine the analysis to consider sector-specific treatment effects; second, we impose additive separability on the outcome equation. We find negative net effects that vary little with sector. The direct effect is small and negative in the public sector and insignificant in the private sector. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume (Year): 21 (2006)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
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- Kristin F. Butcher & Anne Case, 1994. "The Effect of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Education and Earnings," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(3), pages 531-563.
- Marianne Simonsen & Lars Skipper, 2004. "Identifying Direct and Indirect Effects. Estimating th Costs of Motherhood Using Matching Estimators," Discussion Papers 03-023, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Dan A. Black & Jeffrey Smith, 2003.
"How Robust is the Evidence on the Effects of College Quality? Evidence From Matching,"
University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP) Working Papers
20033, University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP).
- Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
- Jason K. Luellen & William R. Shadish & M. H. Clark, 2005. "Propensity Scores," Evaluation Review, , vol. 29(6), pages 530-558, December.
- Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Identification and Estimation of Causal Effects of Multiple Treatments Under the Conditional Independence Assumption," IZA Discussion Papers 91, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ermisch, John & Francesconi, Marco, 2001. "Family Matters: Impacts of Family Background on Educational Attainments," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(270), pages 137-56, May.
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