IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States

Listed author(s):
  • Sean Higgins

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Tulane University)

  • Nora Lustig

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Tulane University)

  • Whitney Ruble

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Tulane University)

  • Timothy Smeeding

    ()

    (Institute for Research on Poverty, Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison)

We perform the first comprehensive fiscal incidence analyses in Brazil and the US, including direct cash and food transfers, targeted housing and heating subsidies, public spending on education and health, and personal income, payroll, corporate income, property, and expenditure taxes. In both countries, primary spending is close to 40 percent of GDP. The US achieves higher redistribution through direct taxes and transfers, primarily due to underutilization of the personal income tax in Brazil and the fact that Brazil's highly progressive cash and food transfer programs are small while larger transfer programs are less progressive. However, when health and non-tertiary education spending are added to income using the government cost approach, the two countries achieve similar levels of redistribution. This result may be a reflection of better-off households in Brazil opting out of public services due to quality concerns rather than a result of government effort to make spending more equitable.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://econ.tulane.edu/RePEc/pdf/tul1317.pdf
File Function: First Version, November 2013
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Tulane University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1317.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Nov 2013
Handle: RePEc:tul:wpaper:1317
Contact details of provider: Postal:
206 Tilton Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118

Phone: (504) 865-5321
Fax: (504) 865-5869
Web page: http://econ.tulane.edu

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Eduardo Engel & Alexander Galetovic & Claudio Raddatz, 1998. "Taxes and Income Distribution in Chile: Some Unpleasant Redistributive Arithmetic," Documentos de Trabajo 41, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  2. François Bourguignon & Francisco Ferreira & Phillippe Leite, 2008. "Beyond Oaxaca–Blinder: Accounting for differences in household income distributions," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 6(2), pages 117-148, June.
  3. John Scott, 2014. "Redistributive Impact and Efficiency of Mexico’s Fiscal System," Public Finance Review, , vol. 42(3), pages 368-390, May.
  4. repec:ntj:journl:v:44:y:1991:i:no._2:p:181-98 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. DAVIDSON, Russell & DUCLOS, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Statistical Inference for the Measurement of the Incidences of Taxes and Transfers," Cahiers de recherche 9521, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  6. Medeiros, Marcelo & Souza, Pedro H.G.F., 2013. "The State and income inequality in Brazil," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt584222f0, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  7. repec:tul:ceqwps:1306 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Oliver Denk & Robert P. Hagemann & Patrick Lenain & Valentin Somma, 2013. "Inequality and Poverty in the United States: Public Policies for Inclusive Growth," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1052, OECD Publishing.
  9. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Leite, Phillippe G. & Litchfield, Julie A., 2006. "The rise and fall of Brazilian inequality, 1981-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3867, The World Bank.
  10. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1995. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Working Papers 5158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Julian Messina & Jamele Rigolini & Luis-Felipe López-Calva & Maria Ana Lugo & Renos Vakis, 2013. "Economic Mobility and the Rise of the Latin American Middle Class," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11858, April.
  12. Nora Lustig & Carola Pessino, 2012. "Social Spending and Income Redistribution in Argentina During the 2000s: the Rising Role of Noncontributory Pensions," Working Papers 1221, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  13. Nora Lustig & Luis F. Lopez-Calva & Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez, 2012. "Declining Inequality in Latin America in the 2000s: the Cases of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico," Working Papers 266, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  14. Nora Lustig & Sean Higgins, 2012. "Commitment to Equity Assessment (CEQ): Estimating the Incidence of Social Spending, Subsidies and Taxes Handbook," Working Papers 1219, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  15. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57(4), pages 622-657, December.
  16. repec:tul:ceqwps:1305 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Fabio Veras Soares & Sergei Soares & Marcelo Medeiros & Rafael G. Osório, 2006. "Programas De Transferências De Renda No Brasil: Impactos Sobre A Desigualdade," Anais do XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 156, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  18. Herwig Immervoll & Horacio Levy & José Ricardo Nogueira & Cathal O´Donoghue & Rozane Bezerra de Siqueira, 2005. "The Impact of Brazil´s Tax-Benefit System on Inequality and Poverty," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 117, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  19. Irwin Garfinkel & Lee Rainwater & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2006. "A re-examination of welfare states and inequality in rich nations: How in-kind transfers and indirect taxes change the story," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(4), pages 897-919.
  20. Paolo Brunori & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Vito Peragine, 2013. "Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality and Economic Mobility: Some International Comparisons," Working Papers 284, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  21. Camacho, Adriana & Conover, Emily & Hoyos, Alejandro, 2013. "Effects of Colombia's social protection system on workers'choice between formal and informal employment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6564, The World Bank.
  22. Callan, Tim & Smeeding, Timothy M. & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2008. "Short-Run Distributional Effects of Public Education Transfers to Tertiary Education Students in Seven European Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3557, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  23. Nicolas Pistolesi, 2009. "Inequality of opportunity in the land of opportunities, 1968–2001," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 7(4), pages 411-433, December.
  24. Wallace, Sally & Wasylenko, Michael J. & Weiner, David, 1991. "The Distributional Implications of the 1986 Tax Reform," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 44(2), pages 181-198, June.
  25. Miguel Jaramillo Baanante, 2013. "The Incidence of Social Spending and Taxes in Peru," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 09, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  26. Buhmann, Brigitte, et al, 1988. "Equivalence Scales, Well-Being, Inequality, and Poverty: Sensitivity Estimates across Ten Countries Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Database," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 34(2), pages 115-142, June.
  27. repec:tul:ceqwps:1314 is not listed on IDEAS
  28. John Scott, 2013. "Redistributive Impact and Efficiency of Mexico's Fiscal System," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 08, Tulane University, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2013.
  29. Salvatore Morelli & Timothy Smeeding & Jeffrey Thompson, 2014. "Post-1970 Trends in Within-Country Inequality and Poverty: Rich and Middle Income Countries," CSEF Working Papers 356, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  30. James Alm & Keith Finlay, 2012. "Who Benefits from Tax Evasion?," Working Papers 1214, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  31. Marisa Bucheli & Nora Lustig & Máximo Rossi & Florencia Amábile, 2014. "Social Spending, Taxes, and Income Redistribution in Uruguay," Public Finance Review, , vol. 42(3), pages 413-433, May.
  32. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
  33. Verónica Paz Arauco & George Gray Molina & Wilson Jiménez Pozo & Ernesto Yáñez Aguilar, 2012. "Explaining low redistributive impact in Bolivia," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 06, Tulane University, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2013.
  34. Sean Higgins & Claudiney Pereira, 2014. "The Effects of Brazil’s Taxation and Social Spending on the Distribution of Household Income," Public Finance Review, , vol. 42(3), pages 346-367, May.
  35. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1992. "School Quality and Black-White Relative Earnings: A Direct Assessment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 151-200.
  36. Nora Lustig & George Gray-Molina & Sean Higgins & Miguel Jaramillo & Wilson Jiménez & Veronica Paz & Claudiney Pereira & Carola Pessino & John Scott & Ernesto Yañez, 2012. "The Impact of Taxes and Social Spending on Inequality and Poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and Peru: A Synthesis of Results," Working Papers 264, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  37. Eduardo Lora & Johanna Fajardo, 2012. "Employment and Taxes in Latin America: An Empirical Study of the Effects of Payroll, Corporate Income and Value-Added Taxes on Labor Outcomes," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 76958, Inter-American Development Bank.
  38. François Bourguignon & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Marta Menéndez, 2007. "Inequality of opportunity in Brazil," Post-Print halshs-00754189, HAL.
  39. Santiago Garganta & Leonardo Gasparini, 2012. "El Impacto de un Programa Social sobre la Informalidad Laboral: El Caso de la AUH en Argentina," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0133, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  40. Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement of Inequality of Inequality of Opportunity: Theory and an Application to Latin America," Post-Print halshs-00754503, HAL.
  41. Robert D. Plotnick & Eugene Smolensky & Eirik Evenhouse & Siobhan Reilly, 1998. "Inequality, Poverty, and the Fisc in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 21(1), pages 51-75, October.
  42. James J. Heckman, 2008. "Schools, Skills, and Synapses," NBER Working Papers 14064, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  43. repec:dau:papers:123456789/1552 is not listed on IDEAS
  44. repec:tul:ceqwps:1308 is not listed on IDEAS
  45. Facundo Alvaredo & Leonardo Gasparini, 2013. "Recent Trends in Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0151, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  46. Nora Lustig & Florencia Amábile & Marisa Bucheli & George Gray Molina & Sean Higgins & Miguel Jaramillo & Wilson Jiménez Pozo & Veronica Paz Arauco & Claudiney Pereira & Carola Pessino & Máximo Rossi , 2013. "The impact of taxes and social spending on inequality and poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay: An overview," Working Papers 315, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  47. Nora Lustig & Sean Higgins, 2012. "Fiscal Incidence, Fiscal Mobility and the Poor: A New Approach," Working Papers 1202, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  48. Santiago Levy & Norbert Schady, 2013. "Latin America's Social Policy Challenge: Education, Social Insurance, Redistribution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 193-218, Spring.
  49. Daniel Aaronson & Bhashkar Mazumder, 2008. "Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the United States, 1940 to 2000," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(1).
  50. Aaberge, Rolf, et al, 2002. "Income Inequality and Income Mobility in the Scandinavian Countries Compared to the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(4), pages 443-469, December.
  51. repec:idb:brikps:80759 is not listed on IDEAS
  52. Nora Lustig & Florencia Amabile & Marisa Bucheli & George Gray Molina & Sean Higgins & Miguel Jaramillo & Wilson Jimenez Pozo & Veronica Paz Arauco & Claudiney Pereira & Carola Pessino & Maximo Rossi , 2013. "The Impact of Taxes and Social Spending on Inequality in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay: An Overview," Working Papers 1316, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  53. Nora Lustig & Carola Pessino, 2013. "Social spending and income redistribution in Argentina during the 2000s: The rising noncontributory pensions," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 05, Tulane University, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2013.
  54. Sean Higgins & Claudiney Pereira, 2013. "The effects of Brazil's high taxation and social spending on the distribution of household income," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 07, Tulane University, Department of Economics, revised May 2013.
  55. repec:tul:ceqwps:1309 is not listed on IDEAS
  56. Vito Tanzi, 2013. "Tax reform in Latin America: a long term assessment," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 15, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  57. repec:idb:brikps:60098 is not listed on IDEAS
  58. Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví & José R. Molinas & Ricardo Paes de Barros & Francisco H. G. Ferreira, 2009. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 60098.
  59. repec:tul:ceqwps:1307 is not listed on IDEAS
  60. repec:tul:ceqwps:1312 is not listed on IDEAS
  61. Alm, James & Bahl, Roy & Murray, Matthew N, 1990. "Tax Structure and Tax Compliance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 603-613, November.
  62. Sean Higgins & Nora Lustig & Julio Ramirez & William Swanson, 2013. "Social Spending, taxes and income redistribution in Paraguay," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 11, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  63. repec:tul:ceqwps:1311 is not listed on IDEAS
  64. Sean Higgins & Nora Lustig, 2013. "Measuring Impoverishment: An Overlooked Dimension of Fiscal Incidence," Working Papers 1315, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  65. repec:tul:ceqwps:1315 is not listed on IDEAS
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tul:wpaper:1317. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rodrigo Aranda Balcazar)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.