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New Century, Old Disparities : Gender and Ethnic Earnings Gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean

Author

Listed:
  • Hugo Ñopo

Abstract

Despite sustained economic growth at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, Latin America and the Caribbean still faces high inequality and weak indicators of well-being among certain population groups. Women, people of African ancestry, and indigenous peoples are often at the bottom of the income distribution. The share of female-headed households rose in the past 20 years. By the beginning of the 1990s, women headed 1.2 percent of complete households (households in which both husband and wife are present) and 79.8 percent of single- head households. This book presents a regional overview of gender and ethnic disparities in labor earnings during this last turn of the century. Latin America and the Caribbean provide a rich environment for studying social inequality, because historical inequalities along gender and ethnic lines persist, despite positive indicators of economic development. The extent of inequality and its probable causes vary widely across the many countries in the region. The book adopts a sophisticated econometric methodology for measuring earnings gaps and applies it consistently across and within countries to measure gender and racial or ethnic differences. The analysis includes a dynamic dimension that sheds light on the evolution of earnings gaps over time. The book offers important insights on economic and political strategies that could be adopted to reduce inequality. The reduction of gender-based segregation in the workplace represents an area in which policy interventions can improve the efficiency of labor markets. Determining whether addressing occupational rather than hierarchical segregation is more effective is one of the areas of policy design to which this book aims to make a contribution. Latin America and the Caribbean is also a racially and ethnically diverse region, with some 400 ethnic groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Hugo Ñopo, 2012. "New Century, Old Disparities : Gender and Ethnic Earnings Gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 11953.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:11953
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Autor, David H. (ed.), 2009. "Studies of Labor Market Intermediation," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226032887, Febrero.
    2. Alberto Chong & Eliana La Ferrara, 2009. "Television and Divorce: Evidence from Brazilian Novelas," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(2-3), pages 458-468, 04-05.
    3. Alberto Chong & Eliana La Ferrara, 2009. "Television and Divorce: Evidence from Brazilian Novelas," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(2-3), pages 458-468, 04-05.
    4. David H. Autor, 2009. "Introduction to "Studies of Labor Market Intermediation"," NBER Chapters, in: Studies of Labor Market Intermediation, pages 1-23, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Joseph G. Altonji & Charles R. Pierret, 2001. "Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1), pages 313-350.
    6. David H. Autor, 2009. "Studies of Labor Market Intermediation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number auto07-1, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Las matemáticas no son juego de muñecas
      by Hugo Ñopo in La educación de calidad es posible on 2014-03-07 02:40:19

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    2. Bhalotra, Sonia & Fernandez Sierra, Manuel, 2018. "The distribution of the gender wage gap," ISER Working Paper Series 2018-10, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    3. Anglade, Boaz & Useche, Pilar & Deere, Carmen Diana, 2017. "Decomposing the Gender Wealth Gap in Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 19-31.
    4. Branko Milanovic & Sean Higgins & Nora Lustig & Whitney Ruble & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2016. "Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 62, pages 22-46, August.
    5. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Canuto, Otaviano, 2015. "Gender equality and economic growth in Brazil: A long-run analysis," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 155-172.
    6. Marina Bassi & Mercedes Mateo Díaz & Rae Lesser Blumberg & Ana Reynoso, 2018. "Failing to notice? Uneven teachers’ attention to boys and girls in the classroom," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 7(1), pages 1-22, December.
    7. Paola Naddeo & Stefania Cardinaleschi, 2018. "Wage Gaps By Collective Bargaining And Firm Size In Italy," RIEDS - Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica - The Italian Journal of Economic, Demographic and Statistical Studies, SIEDS Societa' Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, vol. 72(1), pages 31-40, January-M.
    8. Avolio, Beatrice E. & Di Laura, Giovanna F., 2017. "The progress and evolution of women’s participation in production and business activities in South America," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    9. José María Rentería, 2015. "Brechas de ingresos laborales en el Perú urbano: una exploración de la economía informal," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2015-408, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    10. Thiede, Brian C. & Gray, Clark, 2020. "Characterizing the indigenous forest peoples of Latin America: Results from census data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    11. Viáfara López Carlos Augusto & Serna Alvarado Nini Johanna, 2015. "Desigualdad de oportunidades educativas en la población de 15 a 29 años en Brasil y Colombia según autoclasificación étnico-racial," Revista Sociedad y Economía - CIDSE, Universidad del Valle - CIDSE, April.

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