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Programas De Transferências De Renda No Brasil: Impactos Sobre A Desigualdade

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  • Fabio Veras Soares
  • Sergei Soares
  • Marcelo Medeiros
  • Rafael G. Osório

Abstract

This paper evaluates the contribution of cash transfer programmes to the observed fall in inequality in Brazil between 1995 and 2004 as well as its impact on poverty. We use the 2004 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) that for the first time collected data on the incidence of some of the cash transfer programmes. We develop a methodology to separate out the income of different cash transfer programs, crosscheck the survey information with administrative records, evaluate the incidence of the programmes, calculate their concentration indexes and decompose the Gini index into the contribution of each income source. We find that both BPC - the means tested old age pension and disability grant programme - and Bolsa-Família are quite well targeted: 74% of BPC reported income and 80% of Bolsa-Família reported income goes to families living below the poverty line (half of minimum wage per capita), and that they were jointly responsible for 28% of the fall in the Gini inequality between 1995 and 2004 (7% from BPC and 21% from Bolsa-Família). This contribution is quite sizable since BPC and Bolsa-Família together account for a tiny 0.82% of the total family income reported in the National Household Survey. It is also striking that pensions equal to the minimum wage ? contributory or not - contributed 32% to the fall in the Gini index, but this better performance was due to the fact that they make up 4.6% of the total family income.
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Suggested Citation

  • Fabio Veras Soares & Sergei Soares & Marcelo Medeiros & Rafael G. Osório, 2006. "Programas De Transferências De Renda No Brasil: Impactos Sobre A Desigualdade," Anais do XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 156, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  • Handle: RePEc:anp:en2006:156
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lavinas, Lena & Amaral, Marcelo Rubens do & Barros, Flávio, 1999. "Evolução do desemprego feminino nas áreas metropolitana," Revista Economia e Sociedade, Instituto de Economia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), vol. 12, pages 1-29, January.
    2. Lipton, Michael & Ravallion, Martin, 1995. "Poverty and policy," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2551-2657 Elsevier.
    3. Sen, Amartya, 1997. "On Economic Inequality," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198292975.
    4. Indranil Dutta & Prasanta K. Pattanaik & Yongsheng Xu, 2003. "On Measuring Deprivation and the Standard of Living in a Multidimensional Framework on the Basis of Aggregate Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 70(278), pages 197-221, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Samir Cury & Allexandro Mori Coelh & Euclides Pedroso, "undated". "The Role of Income Transfer Programs in the Fall of Income Inequality in Brasil : a CGE Micro-Simulation Approach," EcoMod2007 23900017, EcoMod.
    2. Pedro Rodrigues de OLIVEIRA & Ana Lúcia KASSOUF, 2012. "Impact Evaluation of the Brazilian Non-Contributory Pension Program Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) on Family Welfare," Working Papers PIERI 2012-12, PEP-PIERI.
    3. Sean Higgins, Nora Lustig, Whitney Ruble, and Timothy Smeeding, 2014. "Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States - Working Paper 360," Working Papers 360, Center for Global Development.
    4. Martha Hanae Hiromoto, 2014. "Uma Análise Do Efeito Dos Gastos Dosgovernos Sobre A Pobreza No Brasil – 1987 A 2009," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 208, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    5. Marcelo Medeiros & Tatiana Britto & Fabio Veras Soares, 2008. "Targeted Cash Transfer Programmes in Brazil: BPC and the Bolsa Familia," Working Papers 46, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    6. Berriel, Tiago Couto & Zilberman, Eduardo, 2011. "Targeting the poor: a macroeconomic analysis of cash transfer programs," FGV/EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 726, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    7. Manso, Carlos Alberto & Barreto, Flávio Ataliba & de França, João Mário, 2010. "Retornos da Educação e o Desequilíbrio Regional no Brasil," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 64(2), June.
    8. Miguel Nathan Foguel & Ricardo Paes de Barros, 2008. "The Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes on Adult Labour Supply: An Empirical Analysis Using a Time-Series-Cross-Section," Anais do XXXVI Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 36th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 200807211655420, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    9. Lia Chitolina & Miguel Nathan Foguel & Naercio Menezes-Filho, 2013. "The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Família Programme on the Time Allocation of Youths and Labour Supply of Adults," Working Papers 120, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    10. Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares, 2012. "Bolsa Família, its Design, its Impacts and Possibilities for the Future," Working Papers 89, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    11. Branko Milanovic & Sean Higgins & Nora Lustig & Whitney Ruble & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2016. "Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 62, pages 22-46, August.
    12. Rafael de Sousa Camelo & Priscilla Albuquerque Tavares & Carlos César Santejo Saiani, 2009. "Alimentação, Nutrição e Saúde em Programas de Transferência de Renda: Evidências para o Programa Bolsa Família," Economia, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics], pages 685-713.
    13. Stampini, Marco & Tornarolli, Leopoldo, 2012. "The Growth of Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean: Did They Go Too Far?," IZA Policy Papers 49, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:66:n:4:a:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Caperoz, Marcelo & Marçal, Emerson Fernandes & Mattos, Enlinson, 2016. "A time series analysis of household income inequality in Brazil 1977-2013," Textos para discussão 434, FGV/EESP - Escola de Economia de São Paulo, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    16. Haagh, Louise, 2011. "Working Life, Well-Being and Welfare Reform: Motivation and Institutions Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 450-473, March.
    17. Marinho, Emerson & Linhares, Fabricio & Campelo, Guaracyane, 2011. "Os Programas de Transferência de Renda do Governo Impactam a Pobreza no Brasil?," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 65(3), September.

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