IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Revisiting the Level Playing Field: International Lending Responses to Divergences in Japanese Bank Capital Regulations from the Basel Accord

  • Chakraborty, Suparna
  • Allen, Linda

The 1998 passage of the Land Revaluation Law in Japan provided regulatory forbearance to Japanese banks in the form of a regulatory capital infusion. We test whether this divergence from international bank capital requirements had an impact on Japanese bank lending behavior. Because this natural experiment created an exogenous supply shock, we can utilize it to disentangle demand and supply effects in order to determine the impact on Japanese bank lending in both the U.S. and Japan. We find that the infusion of regulatory capital had no aggregate impact on Japanese bank lending in Japan, but it did change the allocation of loans. Well-capitalized Japanese banks shifted their lending from low margin, less capital intensive mortgage lending toward higher yielding, more capital intensive commercial loans. Moreover, we find evidence consistent with a shifting of Japanese bank lending activity away from U.S. lending(which is predominately real estate based) to domestic lending to fund manufacturing. Thus, we find that divergences from international capital standards have significant allocative effects on lending, as well as on bank profitability.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1805/1/MPRA_paper_1805.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 1805.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 13 Feb 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:1805
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Kevin J. Stiroh & Christopher Metli, 2003. "Now and then: the evolution of loan quality for U.S. banks," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 9(Apr).
  2. Charles T. Carlstrom & Katherine A. Samolyk, 1993. "Loan sales as a response to market-based capital constraints," Working Paper 9313, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  3. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 847-874, September.
  4. Allen, Linda & Saunders, Anthony, 1992. "Bank window dressing: Theory and evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 585-623, June.
  5. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1996. "The international transmission of financial shocks: the case of Japan," Working Papers 96-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  6. Allen N. Berger & Richard J. Herring & Giorgio P. Szegö, 1995. "The Role of Capital in Financial Institutions," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. Shrieves, Ronald E. & Dahl, Drew, 1992. "The relationship between risk and capital in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 439-457, April.
  8. Reinhart, Carmen & Levich, Richard & Majoni, Giovanni, 2002. "Ratings, rating agencies and the global financial system: Summary and policy implications," MPRA Paper 13249, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Jagtiani, Julapa & Saunders, Anthony & Udell, Gregory, 1995. "The effect of bank capital requirements on bank off-balance sheet financial innovations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 647-658, June.
  10. Hancock, Diana & Laing, Andrew J. & Wilcox, James A., 1995. "Bank capital shocks: Dynamic effects on securities, loans, and capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 661-677, June.
  11. Zhou, Chunsheng, 2001. "An Analysis of Default Correlations and Multiple Defaults," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 555-76.
  12. Montgomery, Heather, 2005. "The effect of the Basel Accord on bank portfolios in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 24-36, March.
  13. Diana Hancock & James A. Wilcox, 1994. "Bank Capital and the Credit Crunch: The Roles of Risk-Weighted and Unweighted Capital Regulations," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 59-94.
  14. Dekle, Robert & Kletzer, Kenneth, 2003. "The Japanese Banking Crisis and Economic Growth: Theoretical and Empirical Implications of Deposit Guarantees and Weak Financial Regulation," Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series qt0t6321ds, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  15. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  16. Mark Carey, 2000. "Dimensions of credit risk and their relationship to economic capital requirements," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  17. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1991. "Investigating the banking consolidation trend," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-15.
  18. Jaap W. B. Bos & James W. Kolari, 2005. "Large Bank Efficiency in Europe and the United States: Are There Economic Motivations for Geographic Expansion in Financial Services?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(4), pages 1555-1592, July.
  19. Boyd, J.H. & Gertler, M., 1993. "U.S. Commercial Banking: Trends, Cycles, and Policy," Working Papers 93-19, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  20. Mark Carey, 2000. "Dimensions of Credit Risk and Their Relationship to Economic Capital Requirements," NBER Working Papers 7629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Bank charter values and capital levels: An international comparison," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 269-284, August.
  22. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric, 1995. "Bank regulation and the credit crunch," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 679-692, June.
  23. Joe Peek & Eric Rosengren, 1993. "The Capital Crunch: Neither A Borrower Nor A Lender Be," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 243, Boston College Department of Economics.
  24. Merton, Robert C., 1995. "Financial innovation and the management and regulation of financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 461-481, June.
  25. Seth B. Carpenter & William Whitesell & Egon Zakrajsek, 2001. "Capital requirements, business loans, and business cycles: an empirical analysis of the standardized approach in the new Basel Capital Accord," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-48, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  26. Krainer, Robert E., 2002. "Banking in a theory of the business cycle: a model and critique of the Basle Accord on risk-based capital requirements for banks," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 413-433, May.
  27. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1994. "Do Risk-Based Capital Allocate Bank Credit and Cause a "Credit Crunch"' in the United States?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 26(3), pages 585-628, August.
  28. Jacob A. Bikker & Haixia Hu, 2002. "Cyclical patterns in profits, provisioning and lending of banks and procyclicality of the new Basel capital requirements," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 55(221), pages 143-175.
  29. Paul S. Calem & Rafael Rob, 1996. "The impact of capital-based regulation on bank risk-taking: a dynamic model," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-12, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  30. Katerina Simons, 1993. "Why do banks syndicate loans?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jan, pages 45-52.
  31. Lawrence J. White, 2002. "Focusing on Fannie and Freddie: The Dilemmas of Reforming Housing Finance," Working Papers 02-01, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  32. Acharya, Viral V, 2009. "A Theory of Systemic Risk and Design of Prudential Bank Regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 7164, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  33. Yongheng Deng & John M. Quigley & Robert Van Order, 2000. "Mortgage Terminations, Heterogeneity and the Exercise of Mortgage Options," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(2), pages 275-308, March.
  34. Linda Allen & Julapa Jagtiani, 1997. "Risk and Market Segmentation in Financial Intermediaries' Returns," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 159-173, October.
  35. Aggarwal, Raj & Jacques, Kevin T., 2001. "The impact of FDICIA and prompt corrective action on bank capital and risk: Estimates using a simultaneous equations model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1139-1160, June.
  36. Steven A. Sharpe, 1995. "Bank capitalization, regulation, and the credit crunch: a critical review of the research findings," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-20, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  37. Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2006. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," NBER Working Papers 12129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  38. Campbell, Tim S & Dietrich, J Kimball, 1983. " The Determinants of Default on Insured Conventional Residential Mortgage Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1569-81, December.
  39. Dahiya, Sandeep & Puri, Manju & Saunders, Anthony, 2001. "Bank Borrowers and Loan Sales: New Evidence on the Uniqueness of Bank Loans," Research Papers 1746, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  40. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1992. "The capital crunch in New England," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 21-31.
  41. Hancock, Diana & Wilcox, James A., 1994. "Bank Capital, Loan Delinquencies, and Real Estate Lending," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 121-146, June.
  42. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1999. "Japanese banking problems: implications for lending in the United States," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jan, pages 25-36.
  43. Allen, Linda & Jagtiani, Julapa, 2000. "The risk effects of combining banking, securities, and insurance activities," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 485-497.
  44. Furfine, Craig, 2002. "The interbank market during a crisis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(4-5), pages 809-820, May.
  45. Wall, Larry D. & Peterson, David R., 1987. "The effect of capital adequacy guidelines on large bank holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 581-600, December.
  46. Sun Bae Kim & Ramon Moreno, 1994. "Stock prices and bank lending behavior in Japan," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue feb11.
  47. Reinhart, Carmen, 2002. "Sovereign Credit Ratings Before and After Financial Crises," MPRA Paper 7410, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  48. Quigley, John M. & Van Order, Robert, 1991. "Defaults on mortgage obligations and capital requirements for U.S. savings institutions : A policy perspective," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 353-369, April.
  49. Takeo Hoshi & Anil K Kashyap, 2004. "Solutions to the Japanese Banking Crisis: What might work and what definitely will fail," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d04-35, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  50. Powell, Andrew, 2002. "A capital accord for emerging economies?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2808, The World Bank.
  51. Brinkmann, Emile J & Horvitz, Paul M, 1995. "Risk-Based Capital Standards and the Credit Crunch," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 848-63, August.
  52. Allen, Linda & Jagtiani, Julapa & Landskroner, Yoram, 1996. "Interest rate risk subsidization in international capital standards," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 251-267, August.
  53. Blum, Jurg, 1999. "Do capital adequacy requirements reduce risks in banking?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 755-771, May.
  54. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "Why Bank Credit Policies Fluctuate: A Theory and Some Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(2), pages 399-441, May.
  55. Larry D. Wall & Timothy W. Koch, 2000. "Bank loan-loss accounting: a review of theoretical and empirical evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q2, pages 1-20.
  56. Maria Concetta Chiuri & Giovanni Ferri & Giovanni Majnoni, 2000. "The Macroeconomic Impact Of Bank Capital Requirements In Emerging Economies: Past Evidence To Assess The Future," series 0002, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Metodi Matematici - Università di Bari, revised Sep 2000.
  57. Flannery, Mark J., 1989. "Capital regulation and insured banks choice of individual loan default risks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 235-258, September.
  58. Craig Furfine, 2001. "Bank Portfolio Allocation: The Impact of Capital Requirements, Regulatory Monitoring, and Economic Conditions," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 33-56, September.
  59. Frederick T. Furlong & Michael C. Keeley, 1991. "Capital regulation and bank risk-taking: a note (reprinted from Journal of Banking and Finance)," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sum, pages 34-39.
  60. Michael B. Gordy, 1998. "A comparative anatomy of credit risk models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-47, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  61. Lam, Chun H & Chen, Andrew H, 1985. " Joint Effects of Interest Rate Deregulation and Capital Requirements on Optimal Bank Portfolio Adjustments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(2), pages 563-75, June.
  62. Ralph Chami & Thomas F. Cosimano, 2001. "Monetary Policy with a touch of Basel," IMF Working Papers 01/151, International Monetary Fund.
  63. J.A. Bikker & H. Hu, 2003. "Cyclical Patterns in Profits, Provisioning and Lending of Banks," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 86, Netherlands Central Bank.
  64. Blum, Jurg & Hellwig, Martin, 1995. "The macroeconomic implications of capital adequacy requirements for banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 739-749, April.
  65. Kang, Jun-Koo & Stulz, Rene M, 2000. "Do Banking Shocks Affect Borrowing Firm Performance? An Analysis of the Japanese Experience," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(1), pages 1-23, January.
  66. Cavallo, Michele & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2001. "Do Banks provision for bad loans in good times? empirical evidence and policy implications," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2619, The World Bank.
  67. Stéphanie Stolz, 2002. "The Relationship between Bank Capital, Risk-Taking, and Capital Regulation: A Review of the Literature," Kiel Working Papers 1105, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  68. Horiuchi, Akiyoshi & Shimizu, Katsutoshi, 1998. "The deterioration of bank balance sheets in Japan: Risk-taking and recapitalization," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 1-26, May.
  69. Herbert L. Baer & Christine A. Pavel, 1988. "Does regulation drive innovation?," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Mar, pages 3-15.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:1805. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.