Risk and Market Segmentation in Financial Intermediaries’ Returns
This study examines both the quantity and price of risk exposure for different segments of financial intermediaries in order to determine whether market segmentation exists in the financial services industry in the United States. We distinguish between depository institutions, securities firms, insurance companies, mutual funds, and other financial firms using each company s SIC code. We find evidence of market segmentation in both market risk levels and market risk premiums. The results provide little evidence of interest rate risk exposure across all types of financial intermediaries, suggesting the prevalence of hedging programs using interest rate derivatives. However, the market prices interest rate risk exposure differentially by type of financial intermediary. We find that as a market segment, insurance companies were exposed to more interest rate risk particularly in the period late 1980 s to early 1990 s. The interest rate risk premium for banks was among the highest of all financial intermediaries. Overall, we find that securities firms, as a group, have the most market risk exposure, followed in order of descending market beta, by banks, other financial firms, insurance companies, and mutual funds, although the order is reversed when examining the market risk premium. Indeed, we find support for an inverse relationship between the quantity and price for market risk, but not for interest rate risk. When we investigate the impact of two regulatory policy changes, we find that (1) the shift in the conduct of monetary policy towards targeting of monetary aggregates induced banks to take on more market risk, probably due to a decline in their charter value; (2) bank market risk-taking increased further with the introduction of riskbased capital requirements which further reduce charter value for banks; and (3) insurance companies are subject to the highest interest rate risk premiums during the 1988-1994 subperiod, following by commercial banks, probably due to interest rate risk subsidy under the risk-based capital requirements. Overall, during the period 1974-1994, banks increased their market risk exposure despite the tightening of regulatory restrictions, insurance companies increased their interest rate risk exposure over the subperiods. We create synthetic universal banks comprised of portfolios of banks, securities firms, and insurance companies. We find that the synthetic universal banks have significantly positive excess returns, with lower market and interest rate risk exposures and higher expected returns than securities firms. This paper was presented at the Financial Institutions Center's October 1996 conference on "
|Date of creation:||Oct 1996|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367|
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Flannery, Mark J & James, Christopher M, 1984.
"Market Evidence on the Effective Maturity of Bank Assets and Liabilities,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 435-445, November.
- Mark Flannery & Christopher James, "undated". "Market Evidence on the Effective Maturity of Bank Assets and Liabilities," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 5-83, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Mark Flannery & Christopher James, "undated". "Market Evidence on the Effective Maturity of Bank Assets and Liabilities," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 05-83, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Amar Gande & Manju Puri & Anthony Saunders & Ingo Walter, 1995. "Bank underwriting of debt securities: modern evidence," Proceedings 481, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
- Campbell R. Harvey, 1994.
"Predictable Risk and Returns in Emerging Markets,"
NBER Working Papers
4621, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Allen, Linda & Jagtiani, Julapa & Landskroner, Yoram, 1996. "Interest rate risk subsidization in international capital standards," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 251-267, August.
- Shanken, Jay, 1992. "On the Estimation of Beta-Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 1-33.
- Ferson, Wayne E & Harvey, Campbell R, 1993. "The Risk and Predictability of International Equity Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(3), pages 527-566.
- Sweeney, Richard J & Warga, Arthur D, 1986. " The Pricing of Interest-Rate Risk: Evidence from the Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 393-410, June.
- Bae, Sung C, 1990. "Interest Rate Changes and Common Stock Returns of Financial Institutions: Revisited," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 13(1), pages 71-79, Spring.
- Yourougou, Pierre, 1990. "Interest-rate risk and the pricing of depository financial intermediary common stock : Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 803-820, October.
- Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
- Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
- Amsler, Christine E. & Schmidt, Peter, 1985. "A Monte Carlo investigation of the accuracy of multivariate CAPM tests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 359-375, September.
- Puri, Manju, 1996. "Commercial banks in investment banking Conflict of interest or certification role?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 373-401, March.
- Madura, Jeff & Zarruk, Emilio R, 1995. "Bank Exposure to Interest Rate Risk: A Global Perspective," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 18(1), pages 1-13, Spring.
- Ferson, Wayne E & Harvey, Campbell R, 1991. "The Variation of Economic Risk Premiums," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 385-415, April.
- Flannery, Mark J & James, Christopher M, 1984. " The Effect of Interest Rate Changes on the Common Stock Returns of Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1141-1153, September.
- Jagtiani, Julapa & Saunders, Anthony & Udell, Gregory, 1995. "The effect of bank capital requirements on bank off-balance sheet financial innovations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 647-658, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:96-36. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.