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The Impact of Capital Requirements on Banks’ Cost of Intermediation and Performance: The Case of Egypt

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  • Samy Ben Naceur
  • Magda Kandil

Abstract

In 1991, the Central Bank of Egypt increased the minimum capital requirements for the banking industry vis-à-vis risk-weighted assets to 8 percent, along the lines proposed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. In this paper, we investigate the effects of capital regulations on cost of intermediation and profitability. Higher capital adequacy increases the interest of shareholders in managing banks’ portfolios. The result is a higher cost of intermediation and profitability. A number of factors have increased the cost of intermediation in the post-capital regulation period: higher capital-to assets ratios, an increase in management efficiency, an improvement of liquidity and a reduction in inflation. The reduction in output growth countered these effects. In the meantime a number of factors contributed positively to banks’ profitability in the post-regulation period: higher capital requirements, the reduction in implicit cost and the increase in management efficiency. The reduction in economic activity had opposite effects on banks’ profitability. Overall, the results support the Central Bank’s efforts to enforce capital regulations to improve the performance of the banking sector in Egypt.

Suggested Citation

  • Samy Ben Naceur & Magda Kandil, 2008. "The Impact of Capital Requirements on Banks’ Cost of Intermediation and Performance: The Case of Egypt," Working Papers 430, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2008.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:430
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    2. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:1208-1218 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Iliana G. Chatzi & Mihail N.Diakomihalis & Evangelos ?. Chytis, 2015. "Performance of the Greek banking sector pre and throughout the financial crisis," Journal of Risk & Control, Risk Market Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 45-69.
    4. Papavangjeli, Meri & Leka, Eralda, 2016. "Përcaktuesit mikro- dhe makroekonomikë të marzhit neto të interesave në sistemin bankar shqiptar (2002-2014)
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      ," MPRA Paper 78604, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2016.
    5. Abdelkader Boudriga & Neila Boulila Taktak & Sana Jellouli, 2010. "Bank Specific, Business and Institutional Environment Determinants of Banks Nonperforming Loans: Evidence from MENA Countries," Working Papers 547, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2010.
    6. Bitar, Mohammad & Saad, Wadad & Benlemlih, Mohammed, 2016. "Bank risk and performance in the MENA region: The importance of capital requirements," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 398-421.
    7. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Sitorus, Djauhari & Tarazi, Amine, 2017. "Abnormal loan growth, credit information sharing and systemic risk in Asian banks," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1208-1218.
    8. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-093 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. O. de Bandt & B. Camara & A. Maitre & P. Pessarossi, 2016. "Optimal capital, regulatory requirements and bank performance in times of crisis: Evidence from France," Débats économiques et financiers 24, Banque de France.
    10. Malak Reda, 2013. "The Effect of Mergers and Acquisitions on Bank Efficiency: Evidence from Bank Consolidation in Egypt," Working Papers 770, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 2013.
    11. Naceur, Sami Ben & Omran, Mohammed, 2011. "The effects of bank regulations, competition, and financial reforms on banks' performance," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-20, March.
    12. Ozili, Peterson, K, 2016. "Bank Profitability and Capital Regulation: Evidence from Listed and non-Listed Banks in Africa," MPRA Paper 75856, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. BOITAN, Iustina Alina, 2015. "Determinants Of Sustainable Banks’ Profitability. Evidence From Eu Countries," Studii Financiare (Financial Studies), Centre of Financial and Monetary Research "Victor Slavescu", vol. 19(1), pages 21-39.
    14. Makram Nouaili & Ezzeddine Abaoub & Anis Ochi, 2015. "The Determinants of Banking Performance in Front of Financial Changes: Case of Trade Banks in Tunisia," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 410-417.
    15. Amel Belanes & Afef Ben Hajiba, 2012. "Regulation and risk taking in the banking industry: evidence from Tunisia," Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(1), pages 89-104.
    16. Khemais Zaghdoudi & Abdelaziz Hakimi, 2017. "The Determinants of Liquidity Risk: Evidence from Tunisian Banks," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 7(2), pages 1-5.
    17. Wahyoe Soedarmono & Philippe Rous & Amine Tarazi, 2011. "Bank Capital and Self-Interested Managers: Evidence from Indonesia," Working Papers hal-00918584, HAL.
    18. Sami Ben Naceur & Magda E. Kandil, 2013. "Basel Capital Requirements and Credit Crunch in the MENA Region," IMF Working Papers 13/160, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Jean Yves MOISSERON & Bruno Laurent MOSCHETTO & Frédéric TEULON, 2014. "Islamic finance: a review of the literature," Working Papers 2014-93, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    20. TOMULEASA, Ioana-Iuliana & COCRIŞ, Vasile, 2014. "Measuring The Financial Performance Of The European Systemically Important Banks," Studii Financiare (Financial Studies), Centre of Financial and Monetary Research "Victor Slavescu", vol. 18(4), pages 31-51.
    21. Monal Abdel-Baki, 2011. "The efficacy of the Egyptian bank reform plan in mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 221-241, August.
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    24. repec:rfa:aefjnl:v:4:y:2017:i:4:p:32-43 is not listed on IDEAS

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