IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Business Cycles, Unemployment and Entrepreneurial Entry: Evidence from Germany

  • Fritsch, Michael

    ()

    (University of Jena)

  • Kritikos, Alexander S.

    ()

    (University of Potsdam, DIW Berlin)

  • Pijnenburg, Katharina

    ()

    (DIW Berlin)

We investigate whether people are more willing to become self-employed during boom periods or during recessions and to what extent business cycles or unemployment levels influence entries into entrepreneurship. Our analysis for Germany reveals that there is a positive relationship between unemployment rates and start-up activities. Moreover, new business formation is higher during recessions than in boom periods. This implies that new business formation is counter-cyclical. When disentangling periods of low and high unemployment we find that the effect of unemployment on new business formation is only statistically significant if the level of unemployment is below the trend, indicating a "low unemployment retain effect".

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7852.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7852.

as
in new window

Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: forthcoming in: International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2014
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7852
Contact details of provider: Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
  2. Caballero, R.J. & Hammour, M.L., 1991. "The Cleansing Effect of Recessions," Discussion Papers 1991_59, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
  3. Edward L. Glaeser & Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Urban Growth: An Empirical Assessment with Historical Mines," Harvard Business School Working Papers 13-015, Harvard Business School.
  4. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2008. "The Impact of Risk Attitudes on Entrepreneurial Survival," IZA Discussion Papers 3525, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max, 2002. "Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-76, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Michael Fritsch & Michael Wyrwich, 2012. "The Long Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship Culture: Germany 1925-2005," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-036, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  7. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
  8. Thomas �stebro & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Anders Broström, 2013. "Does academic entrepreneurship pay?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 281-311, February.
  9. Patrick Francois & Huw Lloyd-Ellis, 2003. "Animal Spirits Through Creative Destruction," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 530-550, June.
  10. Gadi Barlevy, 2007. "On the Cyclicality of Research and Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(4), pages 1131-1164, September.
  11. Levesque, Moren & Minniti, Maria, 2006. "The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 177-194, March.
  12. Carrasco, R., 1997. "Transitions to and from Self-Employment in Spain: An Empirical Analysis," Papers 9710, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
  13. Foti, Alessandro & Vivarelli, Marco, 1994. " An Econometric Test of the Self-Employment Model: The Case of Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 81-93, April.
  14. Claudia M. Buch & Cathérine T. Koch & Michael Koetter, 2013. "Do Banks Benefit from Internationalization? Revisiting the Market Power--Risk Nexus," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 17(4), pages 1401-1435.
  15. Michael Fritsch, 2011. "New Business Formation and Regional Development: A Survey and Assessment of the Evidence," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1127, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  16. Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. "Implementation Cycles," Scholarly Articles 3451303, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  17. Fairlie, Robert W., 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Conditions, and the Great Recession," IZA Discussion Papers 5725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos & Alina Rusakova, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and who is Self-Employed in Germany," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  19. Howard J. Wall & Yannis Georgellis, 1999. "What makes a region entrepreneurial? evidence from Britain," Working Papers 1999-009, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  20. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521728355 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2006. "Risk Attitudes of Nascent Entrepreneurs: New Evidence from an Experimentally Validated Survey," Discussion Papers 252, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Department of Business Administration and Economics.
  22. Simon C. Parker & Emilio Congregado & Antonio A. Golpe, 2012. "Testing for hysteresis in entrepreneurship in 23 OECD countries," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 61-66, January.
  23. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
  24. Morten O. Ravn & Harald Uhlig, 2002. "On adjusting the Hodrick-Prescott filter for the frequency of observations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 371-375.
  25. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
  26. Birgit Aschhoff & Tobias Schmidt, 2008. "Empirical Evidence on the Success of R&D Cooperation—Happy Together?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 41-62, August.
  27. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2010. "Trust, Positive Reciprocity, and Negative Reciprocity: Do These Traits Impact Entrepreneurial Dynamics?," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 348, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  28. Congregado, Emilio & Golpe, Antonio A. & Parker, Simon C., 2009. "The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Hysteresis, Business Cycles and Government Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 4093, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  29. Andersson, Martin & Koster, Sierdjan, 2009. "Sources of Persistence in Regional Start-Up Rates - evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 177, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  30. Hannu Tervo, 2006. "Regional unemployment, self-employment and family background," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(9), pages 1055-1062.
  31. Stephen Nickell, 1993. "Competition and Corporate Performance," CEP Discussion Papers dp0182, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  32. Bania, Neil & Gray, Jo Anna & Stone, Joe A., 2007. "Growth, Taxes, and Government Expenditures: Growth Hills for U.S. States," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 60(2), pages 193-204, June.
  33. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  34. Rampini, Adriano A., 2004. "Entrepreneurial activity, risk, and the business cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 555-573, April.
  35. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  36. repec:dgr:uvatin:20090088 is not listed on IDEAS
  37. Philipp D. Koellinger & A. Roy Thurik, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 1143-1156, November.
  38. Robert Shimer, 2005. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 25-49, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7852. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.