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Business Cycles, Unemployment and Entrepreneurial Entry: Evidence from Germany

  • Fritsch, Michael

    ()

    (University of Jena)

  • Kritikos, Alexander S.

    ()

    (University of Potsdam, DIW Berlin)

  • Pijnenburg, Katharina

    ()

    (DIW Berlin)

We investigate whether people are more willing to become self-employed during boom periods or during recessions and to what extent business cycles or unemployment levels influence entries into entrepreneurship. Our analysis for Germany reveals that there is a positive relationship between unemployment rates and start-up activities. Moreover, new business formation is higher during recessions than in boom periods. This implies that new business formation is counter-cyclical. When disentangling periods of low and high unemployment we find that the effect of unemployment on new business formation is only statistically significant if the level of unemployment is below the trend, indicating a "low unemployment retain effect".

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7852.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2015, 11 (2), 267-286.
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7852
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  1. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2008. "The Impact of Risk Attitudes on Entrepreneurial Survival," Working Papers 012, Hanseatic University, Germany, Department of Economics.
  2. Fairlie, Rob, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Conditions, and the Great Recession," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt0x3809sf, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  3. Michael Fritsch, 2011. "New Business Formation and Regional Development: A Survey and Assessment of the Evidence," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1127, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
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  6. Caliendo, Marco & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2007. "Start-Ups by the Unemployed: Characteristics, Survival and Direct Employment Effects," IZA Discussion Papers 3220, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Edward L. Glaeser & Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Urban Growth: An Empirical Assessment with Historical Mines," Harvard Business School Working Papers 13-015, Harvard Business School.
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  10. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank & Kritikos, Alexander, 2012. "Trust, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity: Do these traits impact entrepreneurial dynamics?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 394-409.
  11. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
  12. Blanchflower, David G., 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 471-505, September.
  13. Michael Fritsch & Alexander S. Kritikos & Alina Rusakova, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and Who Is Self-Employed in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1184, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  14. Audretsch, David B & Keilbach, Max, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Performance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3678, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
  16. Carrasco, Raquel, 1999. " Transitions to and from Self-employment in Spain: An Empirical Analysis," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(3), pages 315-41, August.
  17. Nickell, S.J., 1993. "Competition and Crporate Performance," Economics Series Working Papers 99155, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  18. Michael Fritsch & Michael Wyrwich, 2012. "The Long Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship Culture: Germany 1925 - 2005," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1224, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
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