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Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects

  • Marco Caliendo

    ()

  • Alexander Kritikos

    ()

Supporting start-ups by unemployed persons with governmental programs became an important issue as benefits could include termination of unemployment and further job creation. However, it is feared that previously unemployed lack qualifications for entrepreneurship. We analyze potential effects based on a data-set containing a representative sample of 3,100 start-ups founded by unemployed in Germany. We find that these founders are motivated by push and pull factors. Using a proportional hazard duration model with unobserved heterogeneity allows us to analyze the characteristics which drive success of the businesses. While survival rates are high, the characteristics of the developed businesses are heterogeneous.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-009-9208-4
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Article provided by Springer in its journal Small Business Economics.

Volume (Year): 35 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (July)
Pages: 71-92

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Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:35:y:2010:i:1:p:71-92
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  2. Michael Fritsch, 2008. "How does new business formation affect regional development? Introduction to the special issue," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 1-14, January.
  3. Pernilla Andersson & Eskil Wadensjö, 2007. "Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 604 - 626, October.
  4. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  5. Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2009. "Die reformierte Gründungsförderung für Arbeitslose: Chancen und Risiken," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 856, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  6. Fritsch, Michael & Mueller, Pamela, 2006. "The effect of new business formation on regional development over time: the case of Germany," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,13, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  7. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2006. "Risk Attitudes of Nascent Entrepreneurs: New Evidence from an Experimentally Validated Survey," Discussion Papers 252, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Department of Business Administration and Economics.
  8. Werner Eichhorst & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2007. "And Then There Were Four...How Many (and Which) Measures of Active Labor Market Policy Do We Still Need?," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 53(3), pages 243-272.
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  14. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 1998. "Business Start-ups by the Unemployed - an Econometric Analysis Based on Firm Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  15. Audretsch, David & Vivarelli, Marco, 1995. "New-firm formation in Italy: A first report," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 77-81, April.
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  18. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
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