IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/perwir/v10y2009i2p189-213.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Die reformierte Gründungsförderung für Arbeitslose – Chancen und Risiken

Author

Listed:
  • Marco Caliendo
  • Alexander S. Kritikos

Abstract

Support schemes for unemployed persons which aim at becoming self‐employed have been recently reformed several times. In 2003, the “start‐up‐subsidy” (Existenzgründungszuschuss) was added to the existing “bridging‐allowance” (Überbrückungsgeld) and the two programs together led to a strong increase in the number of supported start‐ups. In 2006 both instruments were merged to the “start‐up allowance” (Gründungszuschuss). Since the bridging allowance has been evaluated as effective and efficient and the start‐up‐subsidy reached new target groups, the latest reform shows several shortcomings. First of all, an end of the start‐up boom is to be expected with the newly attracted target groups not being reached anymore. Secondly, the design of the “start‐up allowance” is suboptimal, where efficiency losses can be expected if participants aim at maximizing social transfers. First empirical evidence from data of 2007 supports most of these expectations.

Suggested Citation

  • Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2009. "Die reformierte Gründungsförderung für Arbeitslose – Chancen und Risiken," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 10(2), pages 189-213, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:perwir:v:10:y:2009:i:2:p:189-213
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2516.2009.00300.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2516.2009.00300.x
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1468-2516.2009.00300.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press and the Associazione ICC, vol. 16(3), pages 455-488, June.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
    3. Eichhorst, Werner & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2007. "Dann waren's nur noch vier… Wie viele (und welche) Maßnahmen der aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik brauchen wir noch? Eine Bilanz nach der Evaluation der Hartz-Reformen," IZA Discussion Papers 2605, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Werner Eichhorst & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2007. "And Then There Were Four...How Many (and Which) Measures of Active Labor Market Policy Do We Still Need?," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 53(3), pages 243-272.
    5. Marco Caliendo & Viktor Steiner, 2005. "Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland: Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung der mikroökonomischen Evaluationsergebnisse," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 515, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Marco Caliendo & Viktor Steiner, 2007. "Ich-AG und Überbrückungsgeld: neue Ergebnisse bestätigen Erfolg," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(3), pages 25-32.
    7. Hans J. Baumgartner & Marco Caliendo & Viktor Steiner, 2006. "Existenzgründungsförderung für Arbeitslose: erste Evaluationsergebnisse für Deutschland," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(3), pages 32-48.
    8. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 2000. "Business start-ups by the unemployed -- an econometric analysis based on firm data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 629-663, September.
    9. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Block, Joern & Kohn, Karsten, 2011. "Sozialpolitische Ziele der Gründungsförderung am Beispiel von Gründungen aus der Arbeitslosigkeit [Social policy as a motivation for start-up subsidies: supporting start-ups out of unemployment]," MPRA Paper 30775, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
    3. Caliendo, Marco & Künn, Steffen, 2011. "Start-up subsidies for the unemployed: Long-term evidence and effect heterogeneity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 311-331.
    4. Marco Caliendo & Jens Hogenacker & Steffen Künn & Frank Wießner, 2012. "Alte Idee, neues Programm: Der Gründungszuschuss als Nachfolger von Überbrückungsgeld und Ich-AG," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 45(2), pages 99-123, July.
    5. Oberschachtsiek, Dirk, 2010. "How do local labor market conditions and individual characteristics affect quitting selfemployment?," Discussion Papers, Presidential Department P 2010-001, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    6. Heyer, Gerd & Koch, Susanne & Stephan, Gesine & Wolff, Joachim, 2011. "Evaluation der aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik: Ein Sachstandsbericht für die Instrumentenreform 2011 (Evaluation of active labor market programs : a summary of recent results for the German program refor," IAB-Discussion Paper 201117, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    7. Michael Fritsch & Alexander S. Kritikos & Alina Rusakova, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and Who Is Self-Employed in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1184, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Evers, Katalin & Schleinkofer, Michael, 2015. "Der Gründungszuschuss vor und nach der Reform : same, but different: Ein Vergleich der Teilnehmerstrukturen," IAB-Forschungsbericht 201505, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    9. Moritz Zöllner & Michael Fritsch & Michael Wyrwich, 2016. "An Evaluation of German Active Labor Market Policies and its Entrepreneurship Promotion," Jena Economics Research Papers 2016-022, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    10. Oberschachtsiek, Dirk & Scioch, Patrycja, 2011. "The outcome of coaching and training for self-employment : a statistical evaluation of non-financial support schemes for unemployed business founders in Germany," IAB-Discussion Paper 201116, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    11. Caliendo, Marco & Künn, Steffen & Wießner, Frank, 2012. "Der Gründungszuschuss in Brandenburg: Eine regionale Analyse," IZA Research Reports 48, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Gerd Heyer & Susanne Koch & Gesine Stephan & Joachim Wolff, 2012. "Evaluation der aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik: Ein Sachstandsbericht für die Instrumentenreform 2011," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 45(1), pages 41-62, March.
    13. Marco Caliendo & Steffen Künn, 2015. "Getting back into the labor market: the effects of start-up subsidies for unemployed females," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(4), pages 1005-1043, October.
    14. Marco Caliendo, 2009. "Start‐up subsidies in East Germany: finally, a policy that works?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 30(7), pages 625-647, November.
    15. Gawlitta, Lars & Kay, Rosemarie, 2010. "Die Opportunitätskosten der sozialen Absicherung beim Wechsel aus dem Arbeitslosengeld I in die Selbstständigkeit: Simulationsrechnungen für ausgewählte Fallgruppen," IfM-Materialien 197, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    16. Bernhard, Stefan & Wolff, Joachim, 2011. "Förderinstrument im SGB III: Der Gründungszuschuss aus Sicht der Praxis (The Gründungszuschuss + Evidence from expert interviews)," IAB-Kurzbericht 201122, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    17. Christiansen Arndt, 2010. "Governance in der Wirtschaftspolitik. Besprechung des von Renate Ohr herausgegebenen Tagungsbandes," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 61(1), pages 402-407, January.
    18. Dirk Oberschachtsiek, 2012. "The experience of the founder and self-employment duration: a comparative advantage approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 1-17, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Jens Hogenacker, 2012. "The German labor market after the Great Recession: successful reforms and future challenges," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-24, December.
    3. Caliendo, Marco & Künn, Steffen & Weissenberger, Martin, 2020. "Catching up or lagging behind? The long-term business and innovation potential of subsidized start-ups out of unemployment," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(10).
    4. Caliendo, Marco, 2009. "Income Support Systems, Labor Market Policies and Labor Supply: The German Experience," IZA Discussion Papers 4665, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press and the Associazione ICC, vol. 22(6), pages 1453-1495, December.
    6. Dirk Oberschachtsiek, 2014. "Waiting to start a business venture. Empirical evidence on the determinants," Working Paper Series in Economics 293, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    7. Oberschachtsiek, Dirk, 2010. "How do local labor market conditions and individual characteristics affect quitting selfemployment?," Discussion Papers, Presidential Department P 2010-001, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    8. Marco Vivarelli, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Post-Entry Performance: the Microeconomic Evidence," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali dises1286, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    9. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance : microeconomic evidence from advanced and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6245, The World Bank.
    10. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
    11. Moritz Zöllner & Michael Fritsch & Michael Wyrwich, 2016. "An Evaluation of German Active Labor Market Policies and its Entrepreneurship Promotion," Jena Economics Research Papers 2016-022, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    12. Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2009. ""I Want to, But I also Need to": Start-Ups Resulting from Opportunity and Necessity," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 966, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    13. Ulf Rinne & Klaus F Zimmermann, 2013. "Is Germany the North Star of Labor Market Policy?," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 61(4), pages 702-729, December.
    14. Daniel Fackler & Lisa Hölscher & Claus Schnabel & Antje Weyh, 2022. "Does working at a start-up pay off?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(4), pages 2211-2233, April.
    15. Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, 2015. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 30(2), pages 277-305.
    16. Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos & Claudia Stier, 2023. "The influence of start-up motivation on entrepreneurial performance," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 61(3), pages 869-889, October.
    17. Hans J. Baumgartner & Marco Caliendo, 2008. "Turning Unemployment into Self‐Employment: Effectiveness of Two Start‐Up Programmes," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(3), pages 347-373, June.
    18. Werner Eichhorst & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2007. "And Then There Were Four...How Many (and Which) Measures of Active Labor Market Policy Do We Still Need?," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 53(3), pages 243-272.
    19. Caliendo, Marco & Künn, Steffen & Weißenberger, Martin, 2016. "Personality traits and the evaluation of start-up subsidies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 87-108.
    20. Ulf Rinne & Marc Schneider & Arne Uhlendorff, 2011. "Do the skilled and prime-aged unemployed benefit more from training? Effect heterogeneity of public training programmes in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(25), pages 3465-3494.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:perwir:v:10:y:2009:i:2:p:189-213. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing or Christopher F. Baum (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfsocea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.