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"I Want to, But I Also Need to": Start-Ups Resulting from Opportunity and Necessity

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  • Caliendo, Marco

    () (University of Potsdam)

  • Kritikos, Alexander S.

    () (DIW Berlin)

Abstract

When unemployed persons go into business, they often are characterized as necessity entrepreneurs, because push factors, namely their unemployment, likely prompted their decision. In contrast to this, business founders who have been previously employed represent opportunity entrepreneurs because pull factors provide the rationale for their decision. However, a data set of nearly 1,900 business start-ups by unemployed persons reveals that both kind of motivation can be observed among these start-ups. Moreover, a new type of entrepreneur emerges, motivated by both push and pull variables simultaneously. An analysis of the development of the businesses reflecting three different motivational types indicates a strong relationship between motives, survival rates and entrepreneurial development. We find in particular that start-ups out of opportunity and necessity have higher survival rates than do start-ups out of necessity, even if both types face the same duration of previous unemployment.

Suggested Citation

  • Caliendo, Marco & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2009. ""I Want to, But I Also Need to": Start-Ups Resulting from Opportunity and Necessity," IZA Discussion Papers 4661, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4661
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    Cited by:

    1. Tasssew Woldehanna & Wolday Amha & Manex B. Yonis, 2018. "Correlates of business survival: empirical evidence on youth-owned micro and small enterprises in Urban Ethiopia," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 8(1), pages 1-26, December.
    2. Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2013. "Start-up motivation and (in)voluntary exit," Scales Research Reports H201309, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    3. Lutz Bellmann & Marco Caliendo & Stefan Tübbicke, 2018. "The Post‐Reform Effectiveness of the New German Start‐Up Subsidy for the Unemployed," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 32(3), pages 293-319, September.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2018. "Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 959, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    5. Konon, Alexander, 2015. "Personality traits, subjective learning, and entrepreneurial decision making," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112805, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Daniel BÃDULESCU & Ramona SIMU? & Alina BÃDULESCU, 2019. "New Ventures’ Objectives And Entrepreneurs’ Expectations. Evidence From Edp-Surveyed Companies," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 13(1), pages 598-606, November.
    7. Andrew T. Young & Matthew J. Higgins & Donald J. Lacombe & Briana Sell, 2014. "The Direct and Indirect Effects of Small Business Administration Lending on Growth: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data," Working Papers 14-35, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    8. Marco Caliendo & Steffen K�nn, 2014. "Regional Effect Heterogeneity of Start-up Subsidies for the Unemployed," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(6), pages 1108-1134, June.
    9. Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2014. "Rationality of Self-Employment: Do Female and Male Entrepreneurs Differ?," MPRA Paper 58116, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Gaillard, Alexandre & Kankanamge, Sumudu, 2018. "Entrepreneurship, Labor Market Mobility and the Role of Entrepreneurial Insurance," TSE Working Papers 18-929, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Feb 2019.
    11. Marco Caliendo & Jens Hogenacker & Steffen Künn & Frank Wießner, 2015. "Subsidized start-ups out of unemployment: a comparison to regular business start-ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 165-190, June.
    12. Peter Thompson, 2011. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs through the Business Cycle," Working Papers 1102, Florida International University, Department of Economics.
    13. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2019. "Defining Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," NBER Working Papers 26377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2013. "Weibliche Solo-Selbstständigkeit zwischen Notwendigkeit und Innovationsherausforderung: Beobachtungen über Geschlecht und Unternehmertum in Deutschland [Female Solo-Self-Employment Between Necessit," MPRA Paper 51460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. André Stel & Ana Millán & José María Millán & Concepción Román, 2018. "The relationship between start-up motive and earnings over the course of the entrepreneur’s business tenure," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 101-123, January.
    16. May-Strobl, Eva, 2010. "Nachhaltigkeit und Erfolg von Gründungen aus der Arbeitslosigkeit: Ergebnisse einer Nachbefragung bei aus den Gründungs- und Begleitzirkeln der G.I.B. hervorgegangenen Gründungen," IfM-Materialien 196, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    17. Obinna C. Ojiaku & Anayo D. Nkamnebe & Ireneus C. Nwaizugbo, 2018. "Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young graduates: perspectives of push-pull-mooring model," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 8(1), pages 1-17, December.
    18. Lucio Fuentelsaz & Consuelo González-Gil & Juan P. Maicas, 2015. "What determines entepreneurial failure: taking advantage of the institutional context," Documentos de Trabajo dt2015-05, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    19. Baumann, Florian & Brändle, Tobias, 2012. "Self-employment, educational attainment and employment protection legislation," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 846-859.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    survival and failure; push and pull motives; entrepreneurship; job creation;

    JEL classification:

    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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