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Trust, Positive Reciprocity, and Negative Reciprocity: Do These Traits Impact Entrepreneurial Dynamics?

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  • Marco Caliendo
  • Frank M. Fossen
  • Alexander S. Kritikos

Abstract

Experimental evidence reveals that there is a strong willingness to trust and to act in both positively and negatively reciprocal ways. So far it is rarely analyzed whether these variables of social cognition influence everyday decision making behavior. We focus on entrepreneurs who are permanently facing exchange processes in the interplay with investors, sellers, and buyers, as well as needing to trust others and reciprocate with their network. We base our analysis on the German Socio-Economic Panel and recently introduced questions about trust, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity to examine the extent that these variables influence the entrepreneurial decision processes. More specifically, we analyze whether i) the willingness to trust other people influences the probability of starting a business; ii) trust, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity influence the exit probability of entrepreneurs; and iii) willingness to trust and to act reciprocally influences the probability of being an entrepreneur versus an employee or a manager. Our findings reveal that, in particular, trust impacts entrepreneurial development. Interestingly, entrepreneurs are more trustful than employees, but much less trustful than managers.

Suggested Citation

  • Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2010. "Trust, Positive Reciprocity, and Negative Reciprocity: Do These Traits Impact Entrepreneurial Dynamics?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1085, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp1085
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 202-238.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2014. "Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 787-814, April.
    3. Brown, Sarah & Taylor, Karl, 2014. "Household finances and the ‘Big Five’ personality traits," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, pages 197-212.
    4. Brixy, Udo & Brunow, Stephan & D''Ambrosio, Anna, 2017. "Ethnic diversity in start-ups and its impact on innovation," IAB Discussion Paper 201725, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    5. repec:bla:ecinqu:v:55:y:2017:i:1:p:368-382 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Caliendo, Marco & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2011. "Searching for the Entrepreneurial Personality: New Evidence and Avenues for Further Research," IZA Discussion Papers 5790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Bicskei, Marianna & Lankau, Matthias & Bizer, Kilian, 2014. "Negative reciprocity and its relation to anger-like emotions in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 203, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    8. Goedde-Menke, Michael & Lehmensiek-Starke, Moritz & Nolte, Sven, 2014. "An empirical test of competing hypotheses for the annuity puzzle," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 75-91.
    9. Bicskei, Marianna & Lankau, Matthias & Bizer, Kilian, 2016. "Negative reciprocity and its relation to anger-like emotions in identity-homogeneous and -heterogeneous groups," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 17-34.
    10. Brown, Sarah & Taylor, Karl, 2015. "Charitable Behaviour and the Big Five Personality Traits: Evidence from UK Panel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 9318, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Kavaliov, Aliaksandr, 2015. "Austrian Business Cycle Theory: An Evolution and Contemporary Condition," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 2, pages 43-62.
    12. Fritsch, Michael & Kritikos, Alexander S. & Pijnenburg, Katharina, 2013. "Business Cycles, Unemployment and Entrepreneurial Entry: Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 7852, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Huatao Peng & Geert Duysters & Bert Sadowski, 2016. "The changing role of guanxi in influencing the development of entrepreneurial companies: a case study of the emergence of pharmaceutical companies in China," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 215-258, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; trust; reciprocity;

    JEL classification:

    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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