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The effects of inequality on growth: a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature

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  • Christophe Ehrhart

    () (CRESS-Lessor, Université Rennes 2 - Haute Bretagne)

Abstract

Basically, the extensive theoretical and empirical literature on the interactions between growth/development and distribution can be divided into two main approaches. The first one examines the impact of economic development on income distribution in a long run perspective. The second one focuses on the inverse causality between inequality and growth. This paper aims at reviewing this second view about the effects of initial inequality of income and wealth on future growth rate. The theoretical literature suggests several channels through which inequality might be harmful for growth, namely three economic explanations (the channel of the capital market imperfections, the approach of endogenous fertility, the argument relating to the domestic market size) and two politico-economic arguments (the approach of endogenous fiscal policy and the political instability channel). The following conclusions can be drawn from our survey of the empirical studies regarding the relationship between inequality and growth: first, only the endogenous fertility approach and the explanation based on political instability receive convincing support from the data. Second, initial inequality of assets has a negative and significant effect on subsequent growth. As a result, wealth redistribution is likely to enhance future growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Christophe Ehrhart, 2009. "The effects of inequality on growth: a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature," Working Papers 107, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  • Handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2009-107
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    3. David Castells-Quintana & Vicente Royuela, 2017. "Tracking positive and negative effects of inequality on long-run growth," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 1349-1378, December.
    4. Pandey, Aviral, 2020. "Inequality in Bihar: A District-Level Analysis," EconStor Preprints 225251, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    5. Iqbal, Kazi & Pabon, Md.Nahid Ferdous, 2018. "Quality of Growth in Bangladesh: Some New Evidence," Bangladesh Development Studies, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), vol. 41(02), pages 43-64, June.
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    8. Roberto Dell'Anno & Adalgiso Amendola, 2015. "Social Exclusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation in European Economies," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 61(2), pages 274-301, June.
    9. Osmani, S R, 2015. "The Growth-Equity Nexus in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Recent Experience," Bangladesh Development Studies, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), vol. 38(2), pages 1-59, June.
    10. Marrero, Gustavo A. & Rodríguez, Juan G., 2013. "Inequality of opportunity and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 107-122.
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    15. Quoc Hoi Le & Hoai Nam Nguyen, 2019. "The Impact of Income Inequality on Economic Growth in Vietnam: An Empirical Analysis," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(5), pages 617-629, May.
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    17. João Gabriel Fidalgo & Marta Simões & Adelaide Duarte, 2010. "Mind the Gap: Education Inequality at the Regional Level in Portugal, 1986-2005," Notas Económicas, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, issue 32, pages 22-43, December.

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    Keywords

    Inequality; Growth;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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