IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Integrated Sectors - Diversified Earnings: The (Missing) Impact of Offshoring on Wages and Wage Convergence in the EU27

  • Parteka, Aleksandra
  • Wolszczak-Derlacz, Joanna

This paper assesses the impact of international outsourcing/offshoring practices on the process of wage equalization across manufacturing sectors in a sample of EU27 economies (1995-2009). We discriminate between heterogeneous wage effects on different skill categories of workers (low, medium and high skill). The main focus is on the labour market outcomes of vertical integration, so we augment a model of conditional wage convergence through the inclusion of sector-specific broad and narrow outsourcing/offshoring indices based on input-output data (World Input Output Database, April 2012 release). Two-way relations between trade and wages are addressed through the use of a gravity-based sector-level instrument. We find no evidence supporting unconditional skill-specific wage convergence in EU sectors. In a conditional setting, (slow) wage convergence takes place, but international outsourcing plays a negligible role in wage equalization. Moreover, even though regression results indicate that offshoring reduces the wage growth of domestic medium- and low-skilled workers, we show that this negative effect is economically small.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:;origin=repeccitec
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley in its series Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series with number qt3tm2935j.

in new window

Date of creation: 31 Oct 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt3tm2935j
Contact details of provider: Postal: 2521 Channing Way # 5555, Berkeley, CA 94720-5555
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Piero Esposito & Robert Stehrer, 2007. "The Sector Bias of Skill-biased Technical Change and the Rising Skill Premium in Transition Economies," wiiw Working Papers 43, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  2. Daron Acemoglu & Gino Gancia & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2012. "Offshoring and Directed Technical Change," NBER Working Papers 18595, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Grossman, Gene, 2013. "Heterogeneous Workers and International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 9341, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  5. Klaus-Bernhard Michel & François Rycx, 2011. "Productivity gains and spillovers from offshoring," Working Papers CEB 11-018, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
  7. Richard Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2013. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 13103, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  8. Alfred Tovias, 1982. "Testing Factor Price Equalization in the EEC," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 375-388, 06.
  9. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi‐Hansberg, 2012. "Task Trade Between Similar Countries," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(2), pages 593-629, 03.
  10. Wood Júnior, Thomaz, 1995. "Workers," RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV-EAESP Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (Brazil), vol. 35(2), January.
  11. Bernhard Michel & François Rycx, 2009. "Does Offshoring of Materials and Business Services Affect Employment? Evidence from a Small Open Economy," Working Papers CEB 09-018.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  12. Deardorff, Alan V., 2001. "Fragmentation in simple trade models," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 121-137, July.
  13. Magda, Iga & Rycx, Francois & Tojerow, Ilan & Valsamis, Daphné, 2008. "Wage Differentials across Sectors in Europe: An East-West Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 3830, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, 02.
  15. Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2010. "Does One Currency Mean One Price?," Eastern European Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 48(2), pages 87-114, March.
  16. Peter Egger & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2004. "Two Dimensions of Convergence: National and International Wage Adjustment Effects of Cross-border Outsourcing in Europe," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 833-843, November.
  17. Peter Egger & Robert Stehrer, . "International Outsourcing and the Skill-Specific Wage Bill in Eastern Europe," WIFO Working Papers 151, WIFO.
  18. Bartkowska, Monika & Riedl, Aleksandra, 2012. "Regional convergence clubs in Europe: Identification and conditioning factors," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 22-31.
  19. Daron Acemoglu & David Autor, 2010. "Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings," NBER Working Papers 16082, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
  21. Dani Rodrik, 2011. "The Future of Economic Convergence," NBER Working Papers 17400, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. David Hummels & Rasmus J?rgensen & Jakob Munch & Chong Xiang, 2014. "The Wage Effects of Offshoring: Evidence from Danish Matched Worker-Firm Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(6), pages 1597-1629, June.
  23. repec:tpr:qjecon:v:106:y:1991:i:2:p:407-43 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Maarten Goos & Alan Manning & Anna Salomons, 2009. "Job Polarization in Europe," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 58-63, May.
  25. Barro, R.J., 1989. "Economic Growth In A Cross Section Of Countries," RCER Working Papers 201, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  26. Aleksandra Parteka & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2013. "The Impact of Trade Integration with the European Union on Productivity in a Posttransition Economy: The Case of Polish Manufacturing Sectors," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 49(2), pages 84-104, March.
  27. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  28. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-97, December.
  29. Adrian Wood, 1995. "How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 57-80, Summer.
  30. Feenstra, Robert C. & Jensen, J. Bradford, 2012. "Evaluating estimates of materials offshoring from US manufacturing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 170-173.
  31. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2013. "Gravity Equations: Workhorse,Toolkit, and Cookbook," Working Papers 2013-27, CEPII research center.
  32. Paul Ramskogler, 2013. "The National–Transnational Wage-Setting Nexus in Europe: What have We Learned from the Early Years of Monetary Integration?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(5), pages 916-930, 09.
  33. Philip Ducaju & Erwan Gautier & Daphné Momferatou & Mélanie Ward-Warmedinge, 2008. "Institutional features of wage bargaining in 23 European countries, the US and Japan," Working Paper Research 154, National Bank of Belgium.
  34. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
  35. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
  36. Lars Calmfors & Anna Larsson Seim, 2013. "Pattern Bargaining and Wage Leadership in a Small Open Economy," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 115(1), pages 109-140, 01.
  37. Paul Ramskogler, 2012. "Is there a European wage leader? Wage spillovers in the European Monetary Union," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(4), pages 941-962.
  38. Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-51, April.
  39. Toni Mora & Jordi Lopez-Tamayo & Jordi Surinach, 2005. "Are wages and productivity converging simultaneously in Euro-area countries?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 2001-2008.
  40. Paul Ramskogler, 2010. "The State of Wage Convergence in the European Monetary Union," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp130, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
  41. Fischer, Christoph, 2012. "Price convergence in the EMU? Evidence from micro data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 757-776.
  42. Marin, Dalia, 2006. "A New International Division of Labour in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 5447, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  43. Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Marcel Timmer & Gaaitzen de Vries, 2013. "The Construction Of World Input-Output Tables In The Wiod Project," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 71-98, March.
  44. Miguel-Angel Martín & Agustín Herranz, 2004. "Human capital and economic growth in Spanish regions," International Advances in Economic Research, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 10(4), pages 257-264, November.
  45. Onaran, Ozlem & Stockhammer, Engelbert, 2008. "The effect of FDI and foreign trade on wages in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the post-transition era: A sectoral analysis for the manufacturing industry," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 66-80, March.
  46. Alexander Hijzen & Paul Swaim, 2007. "Does offshoring reduce industry employment?," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 201(1), pages 86-96, July.
  47. Julian di Giovanni & Andrei A. Levchenko, 2009. "Trade Openness and Volatility," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(3), pages 558-585, August.
  48. Markusen, James R., 2005. "Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI," CEPR Discussion Papers 5408, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. Torben M. Andersen & Niels Haldrup & Jan Rose Sørensen, 2000. "Labour market implications of EU product market integration," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 105-134, 04.
  50. Robert C. Feenstra, 2010. "Offshoring in the Global Economy: Microeconomic Structure and Macroeconomic Implications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262013835, June.
  51. repec:oup:qjecon:v:128:y:2013:i:1:p:165-204 is not listed on IDEAS
  52. repec:tpr:qjecon:v:114:y:1999:i:3:p:907-940 is not listed on IDEAS
  53. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2002. "How international outsourcing drives up Eastern European wages," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 138(1), pages 83-96, March.
  54. Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Fragmentation and multinational production," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 935-945, April.
  55. Iga Magda & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow & Daphné Valsamis, 2011. "Wage differentials across sectors in Europe," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 19(4), pages 749-769, October.
  56. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  57. Ingo Geishecker & Holger Görg, 2008. "Winners and losers: a micro-level analysis of international outsourcing and wages," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(1), pages 243-270, February.
  58. Peter Egger, 2006. "Intermediate goods trade and international wage convergence in Central Europe," Empirica, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 181-192, September.
  59. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "Aspects of International Fragmentation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 793-816, November.
  60. Robert J. Barro, 2012. "Convergence and Modernization Revisited," NBER Working Papers 18295, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Salvatore Baldone & Fabio Sdogati & Lucia Tajoli, 2001. "Patterns and determinants of international fragmentation of production: Evidence from outward processing trade between the EU and Central Eastern European countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 80-104, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt3tm2935j. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.