IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

How Far Can Forecasting Models Forecast? Forecast Content Horizons for Some Important Macroeconomic Variables

  • John W. Galbraith
  • Greg Tkacz

For stationary transformations of variables, there exists a maximum horizon beyond which forecasts can provide no more information about the variable than is present in the unconditional mean. Meteorological forecasts, typically excepting only experimental or exploratory situations, are not reported beyond this horizon; by contrast, little generally accepted information about such maximum horizons is available for economic variables. The authors estimate such content horizons for a variety of economic variables, and compare these with the maximum horizons that they observe reported in a large sample of empirical economic forecasting studies. The authors find that many published studies provide forecasts exceeding, often by substantial margins, their estimates of the content horizon for the particular variable and frequency. The authors suggest some simple reporting practices for forecasts that could potentially bring greater transparency to the process of making and interpreting economic forecasts.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/wp07-1.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 07-1.

as
in new window

Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-1
Contact details of provider: Postal: 234 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G9, Canada
Phone: 613 782-8845
Fax: 613 782-8874
Web page: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Campbell R. Harvey, 1997. "The Relation between the Term Structure of Interest Rates and Canadian Economic Growth," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 30(1), pages 169-93, February.
  2. Diebold, Francis X. & Li, Canlin, 2003. "Forecasting the term structure of government bond yields," CFS Working Paper Series 2004/09, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  3. Croushore, Dean & Stark, Tom, 2001. "A real-time data set for macroeconomists," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 111-130, November.
  4. Kilian, Lutz & Taylor, Mark P., 2003. "Why is it so difficult to beat the random walk forecast of exchange rates?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 85-107, May.
  5. Todd Clark & Michael McCracken, 2005. "Evaluating Direct Multistep Forecasts," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 369-404.
  6. Philip Hans Franses & Yoshinori Kawasaki, 2004. "Do seasonal unit roots matter for forecasting monthly industrial production?," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(2), pages 77-88.
  7. Engel, Charles & Hamilton, James D, 1990. "Long Swings in the Dollar: Are They in the Data and Do Markets Know It?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 689-713, September.
  8. Le Bihan, Herve & Sedillot, Franck, 2000. "Do core inflation measures help forecast inflation?: Out-of-sample evidence from French data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 261-266, December.
  9. Tambakis, Demosthenes N & Van Royen, Anne-Sophie, 2002. "Conditional Predictability of Daily Exchange Rates," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 301-15, August.
  10. Lindh, Thomas, 1999. "Medium-Term Forecasts of Potential GDP and Inflation Using Age Structure Information," Working Paper Series 99, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  11. Cheung, Y. -W. & Chinn, M. D., 1998. "Integration, cointegration and the forecast consistency of structural exchange rate models," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 813-830, October.
  12. Elliott, Graham & Timmermann, Allan, 2002. "Optimal Forecast Combination Under General Loss Functions and Forecast Error Distributions," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt15r9t2q2, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  13. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2003. "Do financial variables help forecasting inflation and real activity in the euro area?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1243-1255, September.
  14. Robertson, Donald, 1992. "Term Structure Forecasts of Inflation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(414), pages 1083-93, September.
  15. Anderson, Richard G. & Hoffman, Dennis L. & Rasche, Robert H., 2002. "A vector error-correction forecasting model of the US economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 569-598, December.
  16. Franses, Ph.H.B.F. & van Dijk, D.J.C., 2001. "The forecasting performance of various models for seasonality and nonlinearity for quarterly industrial production," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2001-14, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  17. Schunk, Donald L, 2001. "The Relative Forecasting Performance of the Divisia and Simple Sum Monetary Aggregates," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(2), pages 272-83, May.
  18. Fabio Canova & Matteo Ciccarelli, 1999. "Forecasting and turning point predictions in a Bayesian panel VAR model," Economics Working Papers 443, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  19. Richard Clarida & Lucio Sarno & Mark Taylor & Giorgio Valente, 2001. "The Out-of-Sample Success of Term Structure Models as Exchange Rate Predictors: A Step Beyond," NBER Working Papers 8601, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1999. "Forecasting Inflation," NBER Working Papers 7023, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Clements, Michael P. & Smith, Jeremy, 2001. "Evaluating forecasts from SETAR models of exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 133-148, February.
  22. Sarantis, Nicholas, 1999. "Modeling non-linearities in real effective exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 27-45, January.
  23. Najand, Mohammad & Bond, Charlotte, 2000. "Structural models of exchange rate determination," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 15-27, January.
  24. Margaret R. Maier & Nigel Meade, 2003. "Evidence of long memory in short-term interest rates," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(8), pages 553-568.
  25. Duy, Timothy A. & Thoma, Mark A., 1998. "Modeling and Forecasting Cointegrated Variables: Some Practical Experience," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 291-307, May.
  26. Sarno, Lucio & Valente, Giorgio, 2002. "Comparing the Accuracy of Density Forecasts from Competing Models," Computing in Economics and Finance 2002 223, Society for Computational Economics.
  27. Laura Brown & Saeed Moshiri, 2004. "Unemployment variation over the business cycles: a comparison of forecasting models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(7), pages 497-511.
  28. Boothe, Paul & Glassman, Debra, 1987. "Comparing exchange rate forecasting models : Accuracy versus profitability," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 65-79.
  29. Richard Deaves, 1996. "Forecasting Canadian Short-Term Interest Rates," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 615-34, August.
  30. Fletcher, Donna J. & Gulley, O. David, 1996. "Forecasting the real interest rate," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 55-76.
  31. McCrae, Michael, et al, 2002. "Can Cointegration-Based Forecasting Outperform Univariate Models? An Application to Asian Exchange Rates," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 355-80, August.
  32. Mark W. Watson & James H. Stock, 2004. "Combination forecasts of output growth in a seven-country data set," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 405-430.
  33. Eitrheim, Oyvind & Husebo, Tore Anders & Nymoen, Ragnar, 1999. "Equilibrium-correction vs. differencing in macroeconometric forecasting," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 515-544, December.
  34. Clements, M.P. & Hendry, D.F., 1992. "Forecasting in Cointegrated Systems," Economics Series Working Papers 99139, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  35. Kirstin Hubrich, 2004. "Forecasting euro area inflation: Does aggregating forecasts by HICP component improve forecast accuracy?," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 230, Society for Computational Economics.
  36. Woon Gyu Choi, 2002. "The Inverted Fisher Hypothesis: Inflation Forecastability and Asset Substitution," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(2), pages 4.
  37. Alan A. Carruth & Mark A. Hooker & Andrew J. Oswald, 1998. "Unemployment Equilibria And Input Prices: Theory And Evidence From The United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 621-628, November.
  38. Hurvich, Clifford M., 2002. "Multistep forecasting of long memory series using fractional exponential models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 167-179.
  39. Chan Huh, 1996. "Some evidence on the efficacy of the UK inflation targeting regime: an out-of-sample forecast approach," International Finance Discussion Papers 565, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  40. Gordon R. Richards, 2004. "A fractal forecasting model for financial time series," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(8), pages 586-601.
  41. Franses, Philip Hans & Ooms, Marius, 1997. "A periodic long-memory model for quarterly UK inflation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 117-126, March.
  42. Rapach, David E. & Wohar, Mark E., 2002. "Testing the monetary model of exchange rate determination: new evidence from a century of data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 359-385, December.
  43. Paul Hallwood & Ronald MacDonald, 2008. "International Money and Finance," Working papers 2008-02, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  44. Gary Koop & Simon Potter, 2003. "Forecasting in Large Macroeconomic Panels using Bayesian Model Averaging," Discussion Papers in Economics 04/16, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
  45. Mark, Nelson C, 1995. "Exchange Rates and Fundamentals: Evidence on Long-Horizon Predictability," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 201-18, March.
  46. Stockton, David J & Glassman, James E, 1987. "An Evaluation of the Forecast Performance of Alternative Models of Inflation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 108-17, February.
  47. Wen, Yi & Zeng, Bing, 1999. "A simple nonlinear filter for economic time series analysis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 151-160, August.
  48. Meade, Nigel, 2002. "A comparison of the accuracy of short term foreign exchange forecasting methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 67-83.
  49. Jacobson, Tor & Karlsson, Sune, 2002. "Finding Good Predictors for Inflation: A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach," Working Paper Series 138, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  50. Pena, Daniel & Poncela, Pilar, 2004. "Forecasting with nonstationary dynamic factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 291-321, April.
  51. Villani, Mattias, 2001. "Bayesian prediction with cointegrated vector autoregressions," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 585-605.
  52. De Gooijer, Jan G. & Ray, Bonnie K. & Krager, Horst, 1998. "Forecasting exchange rates using TSMARS," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 513-534, June.
  53. Chung-Shu Wu & Ruey S. Tsay, 2003. "Forecasting with leading indicators revisited," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(8), pages 603-617.
  54. Joseph, Nathan Lael, 2001. "Model Specification and Forecasting Foreign Exchange Rates with Vector Autoregressions," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(7), pages 451-84, November.
  55. Boero, Gianna & Marrocu, Emanuela, 2003. "The Performance Of Setar Models : A Regime Conditional Evaluation Of Point, Interval And Density Forecasts," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 663, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  56. Maximo Camacho, 2004. "Vector smooth transition regression models for US GDP and the composite index of leading indicators," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 173-196.
  57. Qi, Min & Wu, Yangru, 2003. "Nonlinear prediction of exchange rates with monetary fundamentals," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 623-640, December.
  58. Garcia-Ferrer, Antonio & Poncela, Pilar, 2002. "Forecasting European GNP Data through Common Factor Models and Other Procedures," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 225-44, July.
  59. DeJong, David N. & Ingram, Beth F. & Whiteman, Charles H., 2000. "A Bayesian approach to dynamic macroeconomics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 203-223, October.
  60. Clements, Michael P. & Galvao, Ana Beatriz, 2004. "A comparison of tests of nonlinear cointegration with application to the predictability of US interest rates using the term structure," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 219-236.
  61. Martin Evans & Paul Wachtel, 1993. "Inflation regimes and the sources of inflation uncertainty," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 475-520.
  62. Siddique, Akhtar & Sweeney, Richard J., 1998. "Forecasting real exchange rates1," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 63-70, February.
  63. Man, K. S., 2003. "Long memory time series and short term forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 477-491.
  64. Lee, Jim, 1999. "Alternative P* Models of Inflation Forecasts," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 312-25, April.
  65. Lucio Sarno, 2003. "Nonlinear Exchange Rate Models: A Selective Overview," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 93(4), pages 3-46, July-Augu.
  66. Choi, Jae-Young & Ratti, Ronald A., 2000. "The Predictive Power of Alternative Indicators of Monetary Policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 581-610, October.
  67. Vivien Guiraud & Michel Terraza & Olivier Darné, 2004. "Forecasts of the seasonal fractional integrated series," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(1), pages 1-17.
  68. Bos, Charles S. & Franses, Philip Hans & Ooms, Marius, 2002. "Inflation, forecast intervals and long memory regression models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 243-264.
  69. Richard H. Clarida & Mark P. Taylor, 1997. "The Term Structure Of Forward Exchange Premiums And The Forecastability Of Spot Exchange Rates: Correcting The Errors," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(3), pages 353-361, August.
  70. Toshitaka Sekine, 2001. "Modeling and Forecasting Inflation in Japan," IMF Working Papers 01/82, International Monetary Fund.
  71. Michael F. Bleaney, 1998. "Exchange Rate Forecasts at Long Horizons: Are Error-Correction Models Superior?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(4), pages 852-864, November.
  72. William W. Chow, 2004. "An outlier robust hierarchical Bayes model for forecasting: the case of Hong Kong," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(2), pages 99-114.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-1. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.