IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/empiri/v41y2014i4p641-662.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Eftychia Tsanana
  • Constantinos Katrakilidis

Abstract

This paper explores empirically the issue of income convergence for the Balkans over the period 1994–2011 and the investigation relies on income differentials from both the averages of the European Union’s-15 (EU-15) and the European Union’s-24 (EU-24) as well as within the Balkan group. The adopted methodology deploys the non stationary panel unit root framework to cope with the problem of limited sample providing more reliable insight and, in particular, the analysis uses the univariate and panel minimum Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests, suggested by Lee and Strazicich ( 2003 , 2004 ) and Im et al. ( 2005 ), that accounts for one and two endogenously determined structural breaks. The overall evidence is in favor of catching up with the EU benchmark cases as well as in favor of convergence within the Balkan area. However, disparities for some countries are confirmed. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Eftychia Tsanana & Constantinos Katrakilidis, 2014. "Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 641-662, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:empiri:v:41:y:2014:i:4:p:641-662
    DOI: 10.1007/s10663-013-9222-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10663-013-9222-2
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s10663-013-9222-2?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Robert J. Barro, 2013. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
    3. Carmela Martin & Francisco J. Velazquez & Bernard Funck, 2001. "European Integration and Income Convergence : Lessons for Central and Eastern European Countries," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 13968.
    4. Hashem Pesaran, M., 2007. "A pair-wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 312-355, May.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:28:y:2003:i:8:p:a8 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Holmes, Mark J. & Otero, Jesús & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2014. "A Note On The Extent Of U.S. Regional Income Convergence," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(7), pages 1635-1655, October.
    7. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    8. Bernard, Andrew B. & Durlauf, Steven N., 1996. "Interpreting tests of the convergence hypothesis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 161-173.
    9. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2013. "Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2483-2492.
    10. Josef Brada, Ali M. Kutan, 2002. "Balkan and Mediterranean Candidates for European Union Membership: The Convergence of Their Monetary Policy with That of the European Central Bank," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(4), pages 31-44, July.
    11. Galor, Oded, 1996. "Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1056-1069, July.
    12. Evans, Paul, 1996. "Using cross-country variances to evaluate growth theories," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(6-7), pages 1027-1049.
    13. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    14. Arielle Beyaert & Maximo Camacho, 2008. "TAR Panel Unit Root Tests and Real Convergence," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(3), pages 668-681, August.
    15. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    16. Bernard, Andrew B & Durlauf, Steven N, 1995. "Convergence in International Output," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 97-108, April-Jun.
    17. Amsler, Christine & Lee, Junsoo, 1995. "An LM Test for a Unit Root in the Presence of a Structural Change," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 359-368, February.
    18. Le Pen, Yannick, 2011. "A pair-wise approach to output convergence between European regions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 955-964, May.
    19. Bode, Eckhardt & Krieger-Boden, Christiane & Siedenburg, Florian & Soltwedel, Rüdiger, 2005. "European Integration, regional structural change and cohesion in France," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3764, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    20. Abramovitz, Moses, 1986. "Catching Up, Forging Ahead, and Falling Behind," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(2), pages 385-406, June.
    21. Evans, Paul, 1998. "Using Panel Data to Evaluate Growth Theories," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(2), pages 295-306, May.
    22. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    23. Ryszard Rapacki & Mariusz Prochniak, 2009. "Real beta and sigma convergence in 27 transition countries, 1990-2005," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 307-326.
    24. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2003. "Minimum Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Test with Two Structural Breaks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1082-1089, November.
    25. Spyros Economides, 2008. "The Politics of Differentiated Integration: the case of the Balkans," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 18, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
    26. De Long, J Bradford, 1988. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1138-1154, December.
    27. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    28. Michael Stierle & Dr. Christoph Hausen, 2003. "Determinants of Growth and Business Cycles: Theory, Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 28(8), pages 1-8.
    29. Quah, Danny, 1994. "Exploiting cross-section variation for unit root inference in dynamic data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(1-2), pages 9-19.
    30. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    31. Alexander J. Kondonassis & A.G. Malliaris & Christos C. Paraskevopoulos, 2005. "Asymmetrical economic & institutional changes in the Western Balkans: Cooperation with the European Union," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1-2), pages 43-64.
    32. Vassilis Monastiriotis, 2013. "Regional Growth in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence, Divergence and Non-linear Dynamics," Advances in Spatial Science, in: Riccardo Crescenzi & Marco Percoco (ed.), Geography, Institutions and Regional Economic Performance, edition 127, pages 77-94, Springer.
    33. Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-251, April.
      • Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence," Papers 645, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
      • Barro, Robert J. & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Scholarly Articles 3451299, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    34. Monica Raileanu Szeles & Nicolae Marinescu, 2010. "Real convergence in the CEECs, euro area accession and the role of Romania," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 7(1), pages 181-202, June.
    35. Vogelsang, Timothy J & Perron, Pierre, 1998. "Additional Tests for a Unit Root Allowing for a Break in the Trend Function at an Unknown Time," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1073-1100, November.
    36. Vassilis Monastiriotis, 2008. "Quo Vadis Southeast Europe? EU Accession, Regional Cooperation and the need for a Balkan Development Strategy," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 10, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
    37. Evans, Paul & Karras, Georgios, 1996. "Convergence revisited," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 249-265, April.
    38. Xavier Sala-I-Martin, 1997. "Transfers, Social Safety Nets, and Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(1), pages 81-102, March.
    39. Maciej Sme¸tkowski & Piotr Wójcik, 2011. "Regional Convergence in Central and Eastern European Countries: A Multidimensional Approach," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(6), pages 923-939, February.
    40. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    41. Arjan M. Lejour & Ruud A. De Mooij & Richard Nahuis, 2001. "EU Enlargement: Economic Implications for Countries and Industries," CESifo Working Paper Series 585, CESifo.
    42. Jaroslava Hlouskova & Martin Wagner, 2006. "The Performance of Panel Unit Root and Stationarity Tests: Results from a Large Scale Simulation Study," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 85-116.
    43. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    44. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
    45. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    46. Sarajevs, Vadims, 2001. "Convergence of European transition economies and the EU : What do the data show," BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2001, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    47. Riccardo Crescenzi & Marco Percoco (ed.), 2013. "Geography, Institutions and Regional Economic Performance," Advances in Spatial Science, Springer, edition 127, number 978-3-642-33395-8.
    48. Kutan, Ali M. & Yigit, Taner M., 2004. "Nominal and real stochastic convergence of transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 23-36, March.
    49. Jean-Marc Figuet & Nikolay Nenovsky, 2006. "Convergence and shocks in the road to EU: Empirical investigations for Bulgaria and Romania," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp810, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    50. Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
    51. S. Nahar & B. Inder, 2002. "Testing convergence in economic growth for OECD countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(16), pages 2011-2022.
    52. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    53. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    54. Laurent Cavenaile & David Dubois, 2011. "An empirical analysis of income convergence in the European Union," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(17), pages 1705-1708.
    55. Jalal El Ouardighi & Rabija Somun-Kapetanovic, 2009. "Convergence and Inequality of income: the case of Western Balkan countries," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(2), pages 207-225, December.
    56. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    57. Strazicich, Mark C. & Lee, Junsoo & Day, Edward, 2004. "Are incomes converging among OECD countries? Time series evidence with two structural breaks," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 131-145, March.
    58. Mr. Peter Doyle & Mr. Guorong Jiang & Louis Kuijs, 2001. "Real Convergence to EU Income Levels: Central Europe From 1990 to the Long Term," IMF Working Papers 2001/146, International Monetary Fund.
    59. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
    60. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    61. Matkowski, Z. & Prochniak, M., 2004. "Real Economic Convergence in the EU Accession Countries," International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 1(3), pages 5-38.
    62. Biswajit Banerjee & Mariusz Jarmuzek, 2010. "Economic Growth and Regional Disparities in the Slovak Republic," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 52(3), pages 379-403, September.
    63. Richard E. Baldwin & Joseph F. Francois & Richard Portes, 1997. "The costs and benefits of eastern enlargement: the impact on the EU and central Europe," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 12(24), pages 125-176.
    64. Edgar Morgenroth, 2006. "Economic Integration and Structural Change: The Case of Irish Regions," Papers WP176, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    65. Stephan Barisitz, 2004. "Exchange Rate Arrangements and Monetary Policy in Southeastern Europe and Turkey: Some Stylized Facts," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 95-118.
    66. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6806 is not listed on IDEAS
    67. Quah, D., 1990. "Galton'S Fallacy And The Tests Of The Convergence Hypothesis," Working papers 552, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    68. Chiara DEL BO & Massimo FLORIO & Giancarlo MANZI, 2009. "Regional infrastructure and convergence: growth implications in a spatial framework," Departmental Working Papers 2009-34, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    69. Arjan M. Lejour & Ruud A. De Mooij & Richard Nahuis, 2001. "EU Enlargement: Economic Implications for Countries and Industries," CESifo Working Paper Series 585, CESifo.
    70. G. S. Maddala & Shaowen Wu, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(S1), pages 631-652, November.
    71. Christian Amplatz, 2003. "The Economic Convergence Performance of Central and Eastern European Countries," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 273-295, December.
    72. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    73. Chiara Del Bo & Massimo Florio & Giancarlo Manzi, 2010. "Regional Infrastructure and Convergence: Growth Implications in a Spatial Framework," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 17(3), pages 475-493, September.
    74. Schmidt, Peter & Phillips, C B Peter, 1992. "LM Tests for a Unit Root in the Presence of Deterministic Trends," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 257-287, August.
    75. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ioannis Katrakylidis & Michael Madas, 2020. "Catching-up effects in the logistics industry and the dynamic linkages with international trade and economic growth: empirical evidence from an international panel dataset," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 9(3), pages 197-205.
    2. Christos Kollias & Petros Messis, 0. "Are future enlargement candidate countries converging with the EU?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 0, pages 1-21.
    3. Nikolay Nenovsky & Kiril Tochkov, 2013. "The Distribution Dynamics of Income in Central and Eastern Europe relative to the EU: A Nonparametric Analysis," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1063, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Christos Kollias & Petros Messis, 2020. "Are future enlargement candidate countries converging with the EU?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 47(3), pages 453-473, August.
    5. Luis Mario García Lafuente & Asunción Mochón Sáez, 2022. "Competition effects in EU external aid supply tenders funded with the Pre-accession and Neighbourhood instruments," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 49(2), pages 461-484, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cunado, J. & Perez de Gracia, F., 2006. "Real convergence in Africa in the second-half of the 20th century," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 153-167.
    2. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darne & Jean-François Hoarau, 2012. "Convergence of real per capita GDP within COMESA countries: A panel unit root evidence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 49(1), pages 53-71, August.
    3. Pei-Chien Lin & Ho-Chuan Huang, 2012. "Convergence in income inequality? evidence from panel unit root tests with structural breaks," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 153-174, August.
    4. Pei-Chien Lin & Chun-Hung Lin & I-Ling Ho, 2013. "Regional convergence or divergence in China? Evidence from unit root tests with breaks," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(1), pages 223-243, February.
    5. Diego Romero‐Ávila, 2009. "The Convergence Hypothesis For Oecd Countries Reconsidered: Panel Data Evidence With Multiple Breaks, 1870–2003," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(4), pages 552-574, July.
    6. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darné & Jean-François Hoarau, 2009. "Does the real GDP per capita convergence hold in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa?," Working Papers hal-00422522, HAL.
    7. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308, Elsevier.
    8. Lin, Pei-Chien & Huang, Ho-Chuan (River), 2012. "Inequality convergence revisited: Evidence from stationarity panel tests with breaks and cross correlation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 316-325.
    9. Burcu Ozcan, 2014. "Does Income Converge among EU Member Countries following the Post-War Period? Evidence from the PANKPSS Test," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 22-38, October.
    10. Magrini, Stefano, 2004. "Regional (di)convergence," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 62, pages 2741-2796, Elsevier.
    11. Carlino, Gerald A. & Mills, Leonard, 1996. "Testing neoclassical convergence in regional incomes and earnings," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 565-590, December.
    12. Holmes, Mark J. & Otero, Jesús & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2014. "A Note On The Extent Of U.S. Regional Income Convergence," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(7), pages 1635-1655, October.
    13. E. Tsanana & X. Chapsa & C. Katrakilidis, 2016. "Is growth corrupted or bureaucratic? Panel evidence from the enlarged EU," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(33), pages 3131-3147, July.
    14. Christos Kollias & Petros Messis, 0. "Are future enlargement candidate countries converging with the EU?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 0, pages 1-21.
    15. Matsuki, Takashi & Usami, Ryoichi, 2007. "China's Regional Convergence in Panels with Multiple Structural Breaks," MPRA Paper 10167, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 May 2008.
    16. Ucar, Nuri & Guler, Huseyin, 2010. "Testing stochastic income convergence in seasonal heterogeneous panels," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 422-431, January.
    17. Steven Cook, 2008. "An alternative perspective on the stochastic convergence of incomes in the United States," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(12), pages 929-934.
    18. Paulo M.M. Rodrigues & Jorge M. L. G. Andraz, 2015. "A Reappraisal of Eurozone Countries Output Differentials," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles and Banco de Portugal Economic Studies, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    19. Christos Kollias & Petros Messis, 2020. "Are future enlargement candidate countries converging with the EU?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 47(3), pages 453-473, August.
    20. Chi-Keung Lau, 2010. "Convergence Across the United States: Evidence from Panel ESTAR Unit Root Test," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 16(1), pages 52-64, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Convergence; Panel unit root test; Structural breaks; Balkan countries; C23; C24; O47; O52;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:empiri:v:41:y:2014:i:4:p:641-662. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.