IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/cup/macdyn/v18y2014i07p1635-1655_00.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Note On The Extent Of U.S. Regional Income Convergence

Author

Listed:
  • Holmes, Mark J.
  • Otero, Jesús
  • Panagiotidis, Theodore

Abstract

Long-run income convergence is investigated in the U.S. context. We employ a novel pairwise econometric procedure based on a probabilistic definition of convergence. The time-series properties of all the possible regional income pairs are examined by means of unit root and non-cointegration tests, where inference is based on the fraction of rejections. We distinguish between the cases of strong convergence, where the implied cointegrating vector is [1, −1], and weak convergence, where long-run homogeneity is relaxed. To address cross-sectional dependence, we employ a bootstrap methodology to derive the empirical distribution of the fraction of rejections. We find supporting evidence of U.S. states sharing a common stochastic trend consistent with a definition of convergence based on long-run forecasts of state incomes being proportional rather than equal. We find that the strength of convergence between states decreases with distance and initial income disparity. Using Metropolitan Statistical Area data, evidence for convergence is stronger.

Suggested Citation

  • Holmes, Mark J. & Otero, Jesús & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2014. "A Note On The Extent Of U.S. Regional Income Convergence," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(7), pages 1635-1655, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:macdyn:v:18:y:2014:i:07:p:1635-1655_00
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1365100513000060/type/journal_article
    File Function: link to article abstract page
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1019-1036, July.
    2. MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-577, Sept.-Oct.
    3. Hashem Pesaran, M., 2007. "A pair-wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 312-355, May.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6806 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    6. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
    7. Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-251, April.
      • Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence," Papers 645, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
      • Barro, Robert J. & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Scholarly Articles 3451299, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    8. Quah, D., 1990. "Galton'S Fallacy And The Tests Of The Convergence Hypothesis," Working papers 552, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    9. Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 110(4), pages 857-880.
    10. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    11. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for growth and distribution," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2138, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Robert Inklaar & Marcel P. Timmer, 2012. "Productivity Convergence Across Industries and Countries: The Importance of Theory-based Measurement," Chapters, in: Matilde Mas & Robert Stehrer (ed.), Industrial Productivity in Europe, chapter 11, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    14. Evans, Paul & Karras, Georgios, 1996. "Convergence revisited," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 249-265, April.
    15. M. Hashem Pesaran & Ron Smith & Takashi Yamagata & Lyudmyla Hvozdyk, 2009. "Pairwise Tests of Purchasing Power Parity," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(6), pages 495-521.
    16. Papageorgiou, Chris & Perez-Sebastian, Fidel, 2004. "Can Transition Dynamics Explain The International Output Data?," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 466-492, September.
    17. Bernard, Andrew B & Durlauf, Steven N, 1995. "Convergence in International Output," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 97-108, April-Jun.
    18. Le Pen, Yannick, 2011. "A pair-wise approach to output convergence between European regions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 955-964, May.
    19. repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-109 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Chi‐Young Choi, 2004. "A Reexamination of Output Convergence in the U.S. States: Toward Which Level(s) are they Converging?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 713-741, November.
    21. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
    22. Danny Quah, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution," CEP Discussion Papers dp0324, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    23. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S, 1995. "Lag Order and Critical Values of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(3), pages 277-280, July.
    24. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    25. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    26. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    27. Quintos, Carmela E, 1995. "Sustainability of the Deficit Process with Structural Shifts," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(4), pages 409-417, October.
    28. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    29. Efthymios Tsionas, 2001. "Regional Convergence and Common, Stochastic Long-run Trends: A Re-examination of the US Regional Data," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(8), pages 689-696.
    30. Mello, Marcelo, 2011. "Stochastic Convergence Across U.S. States," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 160-183, April.
    31. Peter Pedroni, 2001. "Purchasing Power Parity Tests In Cointegrated Panels," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 727-731, November.
    32. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    33. Thomas Garrett & Gary Wagner & David Wheelock, 2007. "Regional disparities in the spatial correlation of state income growth, 1977–2002," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(3), pages 601-618, September.
    34. G. S. Maddala & Shaowen Wu, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(S1), pages 631-652, November.
    35. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    36. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    37. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Theodoros Arvanitopoulos & Vassilis Monastiriotis & Theodore Panagiotidis, 2021. "Drivers of convergence: The role of first- and second-nature geography," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 58(14), pages 2880-2900, November.
    2. Ioannis Katrakylidis & Michael Madas, 2020. "Catching-up effects in the logistics industry and the dynamic linkages with international trade and economic growth: empirical evidence from an international panel dataset," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 9(3), pages 197-205.
    3. Vatsa, Puneet & Pino, Gabriel, 2023. "Spatial spillovers and labor productivity convergence in Canada," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 230(C).
    4. Luis F. López-Calva & Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez & Carlos Rodríguez-Castelán, 2022. "Within-country poverty convergence: evidence from Mexico," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 62(5), pages 2547-2586, May.
    5. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Ross, Stephen L., 2015. "Change and Persistence in the Economic Status of Neighborhoods and Cities," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: Gilles Duranton & J. V. Henderson & William C. Strange (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 0, pages 1047-1120, Elsevier.
    6. Eftychia Tsanana & Constantinos Katrakilidis, 2014. "Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 641-662, November.
    7. Rudi Purwono & Mohammad Zeqi Yasin & M. Khoerul Mubin, 2020. "Explaining regional inflation programmes in Indonesia: Does inflation rate converge?," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 571-590, November.
    8. Margherita Gerolimetto & Stefano Magrini, 2017. "A Novel Look at Long-run Convergence Dynamics in the United States," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 40(3), pages 241-269, May.
    9. Moritz Degler & Karsten Staehr, 2021. "Price and income convergence and the dynamic Penn effect in Central and Eastern Europe," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 621-635, August.
    10. Rati Ram, 2021. "Income convergence across the U.S. states: further evidence from new recent data," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 45(2), pages 372-380, April.
    11. Desli, Evangelia & Gkoulgkoutsika, Alexandra, 2021. "Economic convergence among the world’s top-income economies," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 841-853.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darne & Jean-François Hoarau, 2012. "Convergence of real per capita GDP within COMESA countries: A panel unit root evidence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 49(1), pages 53-71, August.
    2. Eftychia Tsanana & Constantinos Katrakilidis, 2014. "Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 641-662, November.
    3. Le Pen, Yannick, 2011. "A pair-wise approach to output convergence between European regions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 955-964, May.
    4. Cem Ertur & Julie Le Gallo & Catherine Baumont, 2006. "The European Regional Convergence Process, 1980-1995: Do Spatial Regimes and Spatial Dependence Matter?," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 29(1), pages 3-34, January.
    5. Cristina Brasili & Luciano Gutierrez, 2004. "Regional convergence across European Union," Development and Comp Systems 0402002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Pei-Chien Lin & Ho-Chuan Huang, 2012. "Convergence in income inequality? evidence from panel unit root tests with structural breaks," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 153-174, August.
    7. Breinlich, Holger & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2014. "Regional Growth and Regional Decline," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 4, pages 683-779, Elsevier.
    8. Lin, Pei-Chien & Huang, Ho-Chuan (River), 2012. "Inequality convergence revisited: Evidence from stationarity panel tests with breaks and cross correlation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 316-325.
    9. Mark J. Holmes, 2005. "New evidence on long-run output convergence among Latin American countries," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 8, pages 299-319, November.
    10. David Sondermann, 2014. "Productivity in the euro area: any evidence of convergence?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 999-1027, November.
    11. Svetlana Gurieva & Irina Kuznetsova & Ekaterina Yumkina & Sergey Manichev & Elena Sidorenko, 2017. "Emotional Intelligence and Behavior Styles of Russian Middle Managers in Business Communication," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4B), pages 679-693.
    12. Yin-Wong Cheung & Antonio Garcia Pascual, 2004. "Testing for output convergence: a re-examination," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(1), pages 45-63, January.
    13. Werner, Daniel, 2013. "New insights into the development of regional unemployment disparities," IAB-Discussion Paper 201311, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    14. Abdou-Aziz Niang, 2017. "Testing economic convergence in non-stationary panel," Statistical Methods & Applications, Springer;Società Italiana di Statistica, vol. 26(1), pages 135-156, March.
    15. Pei-Chien Lin & Chun-Hung Lin & I-Ling Ho, 2013. "Regional convergence or divergence in China? Evidence from unit root tests with breaks," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(1), pages 223-243, February.
    16. Delgado Narro, Augusto Ricardo, 2020. "The Process of Convergence among the Japanese Prefectures: 1955 - 2012," MPRA Paper 100361, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Johan Lyhagen & Johanna Rickne, 2014. "Income inequality between Chinese regions: newfound harmony or continued discord?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 93-110, August.
    18. Aparna Lolayekar & Pranab Mukhopadhyay, 2017. "Growth Convergence and Regional Inequality in India (1981–2012)," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(2), pages 307-328, June.
    19. Wang, David Han-Min, 2007. "Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 380(C), pages 278-286.
    20. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cup:macdyn:v:18:y:2014:i:07:p:1635-1655_00. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Kirk Stebbing (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.cambridge.org/mdy .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.