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A Note on the Extent of US Regional Income Convergence

Author

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  • Mark J. Holmes

    () (Department of Economics, Waikato University, New Zealand)

  • Jesús Otero

    () (Facultad de Economía, Universidad del Rosario, Colombia)

  • Theodore Panagiotidis

    () (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, Greece)

Abstract

Long-run income convergence is investigated in the US context. We employ a novel pair-wise econometric procedure based on a probabilistic definition of convergence. The time-series properties of all the possible regional income pairs are examined by means of unit root and non-cointegration tests where inference is based on the fraction of rejections. We distinguish between the cases of strong convergence, where the implied cointegrating vector is [1,-1], and weak convergence, where long-run homogeneity is relaxed. To address cross-sectional dependence, we employ a bootstrap methodology to derive the empirical distribution of the fraction of rejections. We find supporting evidence of US states sharing a common stochastic trend consistent with a definition of convergence based on long-run forecasts of state incomes being proportional rather than equal. We find that the strength of convergence between states decreases with distance and initial income disparity. Using Metropolitan Statistical Areas data, evidence for convergence is stronger.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark J. Holmes & Jesús Otero & Theodore Panagiotidis, 2013. "A Note on the Extent of US Regional Income Convergence," Working Paper series 10_13, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:rim:rimwps:10_13
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Ross, Stephen L., 2015. "Change and Persistence in the Economic Status of Neighborhoods and Cities," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Eftychia Tsanana & Constantinos Katrakilidis, 2014. "Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 641-662, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Panel data; cross-section dependence; pair-wise approach; income; convergence;

    JEL classification:

    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

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