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Comparing density forecast models Previous versions of this paper have been circulated with the title, 'A Test for Density Forecast Comparison with Applications to Risk Management' since October 2003; see Bao et al. (2004)

Author

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  • Tae-Hwy Lee

    (University of California, Riverside, California USA)

  • Yong Bao

    (University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, USA)

  • Burak Saltoğlu

    (Bosphorous University, Istanbul, Turkey)

Abstract

In this paper we discuss how to compare various (possibly misspecified) density forecast models using the Kullback-Leibler information criterion (KLIC) of a candidate density forecast model with respect to the true density. The KLIC differential between a pair of competing models is the (predictive) log-likelihood ratio (LR) between the two models. Even though the true density is unknown, using the LR statistic amounts to comparing models with the KLIC as a loss function and thus enables us to assess which density forecast model can approximate the true density more closely. We also discuss how this KLIC is related to the KLIC based on the probability integral transform (PIT) in the framework of Diebold et al. (1998). While they are asymptotically equivalent, the PIT-based KLIC is best suited for evaluating the adequacy of each density forecast model and the original KLIC is best suited for comparing competing models. In an empirical study with the S&P500 and NASDAQ daily return series, we find strong evidence for rejecting the normal-GARCH benchmark model, in favor of the models that can capture skewness in the conditional distribution and asymmetry and long memory in the conditional variance. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Tae-Hwy Lee & Yong Bao & Burak Saltoğlu, 2007. "Comparing density forecast models Previous versions of this paper have been circulated with the title, 'A Test for Density Forecast Comparison with Applications to Risk Management' since October 2003;," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 203-225.
  • Handle: RePEc:jof:jforec:v:26:y:2007:i:3:p:203-225
    DOI: 10.1002/for.1023
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    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Tae-Hwy & Long, Xiangdong, 2009. "Copula-based multivariate GARCH model with uncorrelated dependent errors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 150(2), pages 207-218, June.
    2. Ravazzolo Francesco & Vahey Shaun P., 2014. "Forecast densities for economic aggregates from disaggregate ensembles," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 18(4), pages 1-15, September.
    3. Diks, Cees & Panchenko, Valentyn & van Dijk, Dick, 2010. "Out-of-sample comparison of copula specifications in multivariate density forecasts," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1596-1609, September.
    4. Cees Diks & Valentyn Panchenko & Dick van Dijk, 2008. "Partial Likelihood-Based Scoring Rules for Evaluating Density Forecasts in Tails," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-050/4, Tinbergen Institute.
    5. Maheu, John M. & McCurdy, Thomas H., 2011. "Do high-frequency measures of volatility improve forecasts of return distributions?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 160(1), pages 69-76, January.
    6. Cheng, Xixin & Li, W.K. & Yu, Philip L.H. & Zhou, Xuan & Wang, Chao & Lo, P.H., 2011. "Modeling threshold conditional heteroscedasticity with regime-dependent skewness and kurtosis," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 55(9), pages 2590-2604, September.
    7. Garratt, Anthony & Mitchell, James & Vahey, Shaun P., 2014. "Measuring output gap nowcast uncertainty," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 268-279.
    8. Li, Yushu & Andersson, Jonas, 2014. "A Likelihood Ratio and Markov Chain Based Method to Evaluate Density Forecasting," Discussion Papers 2014/12, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    9. Diks, Cees & Panchenko, Valentyn & van Dijk, Dick, 2011. "Likelihood-based scoring rules for comparing density forecasts in tails," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(2), pages 215-230, August.
    10. Rompolis, Leonidas S., 2010. "Retrieving risk neutral densities from European option prices based on the principle of maximum entropy," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 918-937, December.
    11. Hua, Jian & Manzan, Sebastiano, 2013. "Forecasting the return distribution using high-frequency volatility measures," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4381-4403.
    12. Del Brio, Esther B. & Ñíguez, Trino-Manuel & Perote, Javier, 2011. "Multivariate semi-nonparametric distributions with dynamic conditional correlations," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 347-364.
    13. Anthony Garratt & James Mitchell & Shaun P. Vahey, 2009. "Measuring Output Gap Uncertainty," Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance 0909, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
    14. Gloria González-Rivera & Tae-Hwy Lee, 2007. "Nonlinear Time Series in Financial Forecasting," Working Papers 200803, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics, revised Feb 2008.
    15. Francesco Ravazzolo & Shaun P Vahey, 2010. "Measuring Core Inflation in Australia with Disaggregate Ensembles," RBA Annual Conference Volume (Discontinued), in: Renée Fry & Callum Jones & Christopher Kent (ed.),Inflation in an Era of Relative Price Shocks, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    16. Kyungchul Song, 2009. "Testing Predictive Ability and Power Robustification," PIER Working Paper Archive 09-035, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.

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