IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/trapol/v38y2015icp1-7.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Effects of quotas on Turkish foreign trade: A gravity model

Author

Listed:
  • Ülengin, Füsun
  • Çekyay, Bora
  • Toktaş Palut, Peral
  • Ülengin, Burç
  • Kabak, Özgür
  • Özaydın, Özay
  • Önsel Ekici, Şule

Abstract

Turkey's role as a world trade participant has grown in recent years, particularly as the country is capitalizing more on its unique geopolitical position. Given the important trade volume and rooted relations between Turkey and the EU, their trade and economic relations should be paid due attention and steps should be taken to further improve these relations. Turkey is the biggest economy in a Customs Union (CU) with EU but not in EU, along with Andorra, Monaco, and San Marino. When it joined the CU in 1996, Turkey has removed all customs duties and equivalent charges as well as quantitative restrictions. However some EU countries imposes quota limits to the Turkish road transporters that may indirectly restricts the trade between Turkey and the related country. In this study, we investigate the effect of road transport quotas on Turkish foreign trade with EU countries. A gravity model that is estimated with panel data from 18 selected EU countries between 2005 and 2012 is used for this purpose. Furthermore, as one of the leading sectors using road transportation for Turkey's export to EU countries, textile sector is analyzed as a case study. The results indicate that quotas have significant effects on Turkish total exports via road transport as well as the Turkish textile exports to EU countries. The estimated amount of the loss of the exports of Turkey to the selected countries in analyzed time period is 10.6 billion $ in Turkey's total exports via road transport, and 5.65 billion $ in Turkey's total textile exports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the quota limitations are against CU regulations because they do not limit not on the road transportation but also the trade between parties.

Suggested Citation

  • Ülengin, Füsun & Çekyay, Bora & Toktaş Palut, Peral & Ülengin, Burç & Kabak, Özgür & Özaydın, Özay & Önsel Ekici, Şule, 2015. "Effects of quotas on Turkish foreign trade: A gravity model," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1-7.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:38:y:2015:i:c:p:1-7
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.09.006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X14001954
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Okubo, Toshihiro, 2004. "The border effect in the Japanese market: A Gravity Model analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-11, March.
    2. Glick, Reuven & Rose, Andrew K., 2002. "Does a currency union affect trade? The time-series evidence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 1125-1151, June.
    3. Novy, Dennis, 2013. "International trade without CES: Estimating translog gravity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 271-282.
    4. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    5. Jacks, David S. & Meissner, Christopher M. & Novy, Dennis, 2011. "Trade booms, trade busts, and trade costs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 185-201, March.
    6. Alessandro Olper & Valentina Raimondi, 2008. "Market Access Asymmetry in Food Trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(3), pages 509-537, October.
    7. Antonucci, Daniele & Manzocchi, Stefano, 2006. "Does Turkey have a special trade relation with the EU?: A gravity model approach," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 157-169, June.
    8. Jean-François Brun & Céline Carrère & Patrick Guillaumont & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Has Distance Died? Evidence from a Panel Gravity Model," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 13, pages 299-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    9. Valentina Raimondi & Alessandro Olper, 2011. "Trade Elasticity, Gravity and Trade Liberalisation: Evidence from the Food Industry," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 525-550, September.
    10. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    11. Adrian Wood, 1994. "Give Heckscher and Ohlin a chance!," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(1), pages 20-49, March.
    12. Egger, Peter, 2000. "A note on the proper econometric specification of the gravity equation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 25-31, January.
    13. Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 7-46, April.
    14. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
    15. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(2), pages 441-487.
    16. Redding, Stephen & Venables, Anthony J., 2004. "Economic geography and international inequality," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82, January.
    17. Peter Egger & Mario Larch & Kevin E. Staub & Rainer Winkelmann, 2011. "The Trade Effects of Endogenous Preferential Trade Agreements," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 113-143, August.
    18. Alan Deardorff, 1998. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," NBER Chapters,in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 7-32 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Carolyn L. Evans & James Harrigan, 2005. "Distance, Time, and Specialization: Lean Retailing in General Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 292-313, March.
    20. Baldwin, Richard, 2007. "Trade Effects of the Euro: a Comparison of Estimators," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 22, pages 780-818.
    21. Egger, Peter & Larch, Mario, 2011. "An assessment of the Europe agreements' effects on bilateral trade, GDP, and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 263-279, February.
    22. Olper, Alessandro & Raimondi, Valentina, 2008. "Agricultural market integration in the OECD: A gravity-border effect approach," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 165-175, April.
    23. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1989. "The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 143-153, February.
    24. Sampath Jayasinghe & Rakhal Sarker, 2008. "Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Trade in Agrifood Products: Evidence from Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 30(1), pages 61-81.
    25. Gil-Pareja, Salvador & Llorca-Vivero, Rafael & Martínez-Serrano, José Antonio, 2008. "Trade effects of monetary agreements: Evidence for OECD countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 733-755, May.
    26. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2007. "Do free trade agreements actually increase members' international trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 72-95, March.
    27. Liu, Xiaoyun & Xin, Xian, 2011. "Transportation uncertainty and international trade," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 156-162, January.
    28. Kyoji Fukao; Toshihiro Okubo, 2004. "Why Has the Border Effect in the Japanese Market Declined?," IHEID Working Papers 12-2004, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:retrec:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:70-77 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Evgenie P. Zharikov & Alla A. Kravchenko & Olesya O. Sergeeva & Victor V. Stetsyuk, 2016. "Econometric Estimation of Bilateral Transboundary Trade between Russia and China," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 1068-1071.
    3. repec:spr:eurase:v:8:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s40822-017-0081-1 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gravity; Quota; Turkey; Trade;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:38:y:2015:i:c:p:1-7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.