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Why Has the Border Effect in the Japanese Market Declined?

This paper analyzes the causes of the decline in Japan’s border effect by estimating gravity equations for Japan’s international and interregional trade in four machinery industries (electrical, general, precision, and transportation machinery). In the estimation, we explicitly take account of firms’ networks. We find that ownership relations usually enhance trade between two regions (countries), and also find that we can explain 35% of the decline in Japan’s border effect from 1980 to 1995 in the electrical machinery industry by the increase of international networks. JEL Classification numbers: F14; F17; F21; L14.

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Paper provided by Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies in its series IHEID Working Papers with number 12-2004.

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Length: 28
Date of creation: Dec 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:gii:giihei:heiwp12-2004
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  1. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Lafourcade, Miren & Mayer, Thierry, 2003. "Can Business and Social Networks Explain the Border Effect Puzzle?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3750, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Mitsuyo Ando & Fukunari Kimura, 2005. "The Formation of International Production and Distribution Networks in East Asia," NBER Chapters, in: International Trade in East Asia, NBER-East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 14, pages 177-216 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Antras, Pol, 2003. "Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure," Scholarly Articles 3196328, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  4. Martin, Philippe & Rogers, Carol Ann, 1995. "Industrial location and public infrastructure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 335-351, November.
  5. Baldwin, Richard & Okubo, Toshihiro, 2004. "Heterogeneous Firms, Agglomeration and Economic Geography: Selection and Sorting," CEPR Discussion Papers 4602, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Andrew B. Bernard & Stephen Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2004. "Comparative Advantage and Heterogeneous Firms," CEP Discussion Papers dp0643, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  7. Toshihiro Okubo, 2003. "The Border Effect in the Japanese Market: A Gravity Model Analysis," Working Papers 494, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  8. Falvey, Rodney E., 1981. "Commercial policy and intra-industry trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 495-511, November.
  9. Keith Head & John Ries, 1998. "Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 47-62, February.
  10. Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1998. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," NBER Working Papers 6529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-234, December.
  12. Greenaway, David & Hine, Robert C & Milner, Chris, 1995. "Vertical and Horizontal Intra-industry Trade: A Cross Industry Analysis for the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(433), pages 1505-18, November.
  13. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 2003. "Major trade trends in East Asia : what are their implications for regional cooperation and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3084, The World Bank.
  14. Rice, Patricia & Stewart, Martin & Venables, Anthony J, 2002. "The Geography of Intra-Industry Trade: Empirics," CEPR Discussion Papers 3368, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Goldberg, Michael A. & Heinkel, Robert L. & Levi, Maurice D., 2005. "Foreign direct investment: The human dimension," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 913-934, October.
  16. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  17. Greaney, Theresa M., 2003. "Reverse importing and asymmetric trade and FDI: a networks explanation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 453-465, December.
  18. Findlay, Ronald, 1978. "Relative Backwardness, Direct Foreign Investment, and the Transfer of Technology: A Simple Dynamic Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 92(1), pages 1-16, February.
  19. Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
  20. McLaren, John, 1999. "Supplier relations and the market context: A theory of handshakes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 121-138, June.
  21. Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. James E. Rauch, 1996. "Networks versus Markets in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 5617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Lafourcade, Miren & Mayer, Thierry, 2005. "The trade-creating effects of business and social networks: evidence from France," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 1-29, May.
  24. Hummels, D. & Levinsohn, J., 1993. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade: Reconsidering the Evidence," Working Papers 339, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  25. David Greenaway & Robert Hine & Chris Milner, 1994. "Country-specific factors and the pattern of horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade in the UK," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 77-100, March.
  26. Flam, Harry & Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Industrial policy under monopolistic competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-2), pages 79-102, February.
  27. repec:rus:hseeco:122439 is not listed on IDEAS
  28. Gould, David M, 1994. "Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 302-16, May.
  29. repec:rus:hseeco:121607 is not listed on IDEAS
  30. Lars Nilsson, 1999. "Two-way trade between unequal partners: The EU and the developing countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 135(1), pages 102-127, March.
  31. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
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