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Commerce international et structures de marché : une vérification empirique

  • Nicolas Péridy
  • Michael Frudenberg
  • Lionel Fontagné

[fre] Commerce international et structures de marché : une vérification empirique par Lionel Fontagné, Michel Freudenberg et Nicolas Péridy . Une part importante des échanges internationaux a lieu sur un mode intra-branche (croisement des exportations et importations au sein des branches), en contradiction apparente avec la logique de spécialisation inter-branches selon les avantages comparatifs. Les développements récents de la théorie du commerce international, intégrant de nombreux apports de l'économie industrielle, débouchent toutefois sur une synthèse entre l'approche classique (l'avantage comparatif) et la concurrence imparfaite. On déduit deux ensembles de prédictions testables de cette synthèse, amendée pour prendre en compte la différenciation verticale des produits. L'un concerne les volumes d'échanges bilatéraux, l'autre la nature, inter- ou intra-branche des échanges. On estime des équations de type gravitaire entre pays de FUE12 sur la période 1980-1994. Les approches contemporaines de la spécialisation,_basées sur l'exploitation des rendements croissants, sont validées, mais non l'approche classique en termes d'avantage comparatif. Par contre, cette dernière conserve sa validité à un niveau plus fin, sur les échelles de qualité au sein des branches._Si la différenciation des produits renforce l'échange intra-branche, comme attendu, l'association traditionnelle des économies d'échelle à l'échange intra-branche n'est validée que dans le cas de la différenciation horizontale des produits. [eng] International Trade and Market Structure: An Empirical Assesment par Lionel Fontagné, Michael Freudenberg and Nicolas Péridy . A prominent share of international trade is of an intra-industry nature (cross hauling of trade flows within industries), in contrast with the classical view of international trade. However, new developments allow for a synthesis between imperfect competition and the classical framework of comparative advantage. Using this synthesis, two sets of hypotheses are tested here, concerning the value and the nature of bilateral trade flows. Gravity type equations are estimated for EU12 countries over the period 1980-94. First, new thinking about specialisation, as an outcome of increasing returns, is validated. Second, even if comparative advantages are identified as a determinant of the specialisation along quality ladders within industries, they do no longer impulse a traditional inter-industry specialisation within our sample. Finally, product differentiation is validated as a determinant of intra-industry-trade, whereas the classical link between economies of scale and IIT is validated in the case of horizontally differentiated products only.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 135 (1998)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 147-167

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_135_4_5931
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1998.5931
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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