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How serious is the omission of bilateral tariff rates in gravity?

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  • Hayakawa, Kazunobu

Abstract

This paper presents a constructed dataset of worldwide bilateral tariff rates to explore the seriousness of omitting bilateral tariff rates from gravity equations. Results indicate, first, that omitting bilateral tariff rates presents no serious issue related to the omitted variable bias because coefficients for the usual gravity variables remain unchanged before and after their inclusion. Second, the widely used dummy variable for regional trade agreements is not a statistical substitute for tariff rates because the coefficient for bilateral tariff rates remains significant even if it is included. Similarly, time-invariant pair fixed effects alongside time-variant importer and exporter fixed effects do not substitute statistically for omitted tariff rates.

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  • Hayakawa, Kazunobu, 2013. "How serious is the omission of bilateral tariff rates in gravity?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 81-94.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:27:y:2013:i:c:p:81-94
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jjie.2013.01.002
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    Cited by:

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    2. Brian D. Varian, 2018. "Anglo†American trade costs during the first era of globalization: the contribution of a bilateral tariff series," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 71(1), pages 190-212, February.
    3. Atsuko Matsumura, 2021. "Gravity analysis of trade for environmental goods focusing on bilateral tariff rates and regional integration," Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 477-511, June.
    4. Pakasa Bary, 2015. "The Time-Varying Impact of Regional Trade Agreement: Evidence from ASEAN," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(9), pages 1061-1075, September.
    5. Jana Riedel & Anja Slany, 2019. "The potential of African trade integration – Panel data evidence for the COMESA-EAC-SADC Tripartite," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(7), pages 843-872, October.
    6. Kazunobu Hayakawa & Fukunari Kimura, 2015. "How Much Do Free Trade Agreements Reduce Impediments to Trade?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 711-729, September.
    7. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Kimura, Fukunari, 2014. "How do free trade agreements reduce tariff rates and non-tariff barriers?," IDE Discussion Papers 446, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    8. Lin, Chin-Ho, 2015. "The impact of tariff rates on the probability of trade relationships survival: evidence from ASEAN+6 manufactured goods," MPRA Paper 71260, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Chin‐Ho Lin, 2020. "Impact of tariff rates on the probability of trade relationship survival: Evidence from ASEAN+6 manufactured goods," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(4), pages 457-474, October.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gravity equation; Tariff rates; Free trade agreement;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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