IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/tefoso/v127y2018icp166-176.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms

Author

Listed:
  • Cowling, Marc
  • Ughetto, Elisa
  • Lee, Neil

Abstract

High-technology firms per se are perceived to be more risky than other, more conventional, firms. It follows that financial institutions will take this into account when designing loan contracts, and that this will manifest itself in more costly debt. In this paper we empirically test whether the provision of a government loan guarantee fundamentally changes the way lenders price debt to high-tech firms. Further, we also examine whether there are differential loan price effects of a public guarantee depending on the nature of the firms themselves and the nature of the economic and innovation environment that surrounds them. Using a large UK dataset of 29,266 guarantee backed loans we find that there is a high-tech risk premium which is justified by higher default, but, in general, that this premium is altered significantly when a public guarantee is provided for all firms. Further, all these loan price effects differ on precise spatial economic and innovation attributes.

Suggested Citation

  • Cowling, Marc & Ughetto, Elisa & Lee, Neil, 2018. "The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 166-176.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:127:y:2018:i:c:p:166-176
    DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.06.016
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162517308028
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.06.016?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ramana Nanda & William R. Kerr, 2015. "Financing Innovation," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 445-462, December.
    2. Bill Francis & Iftekhar Hasan & Ying Huang & Zenu Sharma, 2012. "Do Banks Value Innovation? Evidence from US Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 41(1), pages 159-185, March.
    3. Beck, Thorsten & Klapper, Leora F. & Mendoza, Juan Carlos, 2010. "The typology of partial credit guarantee funds around the world," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 10-25, April.
    4. Antonio Acconcia & Alfredo Del Monte & Luca Pennacchio & Germana Scepi, 2011. "IPO Underpricing and the Location of Firms," CSEF Working Papers 295, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 04 Feb 2021.
    5. Hsu, Po-Hsuan & Lee, Hsiao-Hui & Liu, Alfred Zhu & Zhang, Zhipeng, 2015. "Corporate innovation, default risk, and bond pricing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 329-344.
    6. Guiso, Luigi, 1998. "High-tech firms and credit rationing," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 39-59, March.
    7. Cowling, Marc, 2010. "The role of loan guarantee schemes in alleviating credit rationing in the UK," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 36-44, April.
    8. Bronwyn Hall, 2004. "The financing of research and development," Chapters, in: Anthony Bartzokas & Sunil Mani (ed.), Financial Systems, Corporate Investment in Innovation, and Venture Capital, chapter 2, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2007. "Does market size structure affect competition? The case of small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-33, January.
    10. Pietro Alessandrini & Andrea F. Presbitero & Alberto Zazzaro, 2010. "Bank size or distance: what hampers innovation adoption by SMEs?," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(6), pages 845-881, November.
    11. G. M.P. Swann, 2009. "The Economics of Innovation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13211.
    12. Benfratello, Luigi & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2008. "Banks and innovation: Microeconometric evidence on Italian firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 197-217, November.
    13. Elisa Ughetto, 2009. "Industrial districts and financial constraints to innovation," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(5), pages 597-624.
    14. Elisa Ughetto, 2008. "Does internal finance matter for R&D? New evidence from a panel of Italian firms," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(6), pages 907-925, November.
    15. Henry Chen & Paul Gompers & Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2010. "Buy Local? The Geography of Venture Capital," NBER Chapters, in: Cities and Entrepreneurship, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross & Michalopoulos, Stelios, 2015. "Financial innovation and endogenous growth," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-24.
    17. Cowling, Marc & Mitchell, Peter, 2003. "Is the Small Firms Loan Guarantee Scheme Hazardous for Banks or Helpful to Small Business?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 63-71, August.
    18. Lee, Neil & Sameen, Hiba & Cowling, Marc, 2015. "Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 370-380.
    19. Brown, Martin & Degryse, Hans & Höwer, Daniel & Penas, María Fabiana, 2012. "How do banks screen innovative firms? Evidence from start-up panel data," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-032, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    20. Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.), 2010. "Handbook of the Economics of Innovation," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1.
    21. Samuel Kortum & Josh Lerner, 2000. "Assessing the Contribution of Venture Capital to Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(4), pages 674-692, Winter.
    22. Marco Crocco & Fernanda Faria-Silva & Luiz Paulo-Rezende & Carlos J. Rodr�guez-Fuentes, 2014. "Banks and Regional Development: An Empirical Analysis on the Determinants of Credit Availability in Brazilian Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(5), pages 883-895, May.
    23. Munari, Federico & Toschi, Laura, 2015. "Assessing the impact of public venture capital programmes in the United Kingdom: Do regional characteristics matter?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 205-226.
    24. Michele Cincera & Anabela Marques Santos, 2015. "Innovation and Access to Finance – A Review of the Literature," iCite Working Papers 2015-16, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    25. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Lerner, Josh, 2010. "The Financing of R&D and Innovation," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, in: Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 609-639, Elsevier.
    26. Claire Lelarge & David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and Credit Constraints: Evidence from a French Loan Guarantee Program," NBER Chapters, in: International Differences in Entrepreneurship, pages 243-273, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Robert E. Carpenter & Bruce C. Petersen, 2002. "Capital Market Imperfections, High-Tech Investment, and New Equity Financing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 54-72, February.
    28. Himmelberg, Charles P & Petersen, Bruce C, 1994. "R&D and Internal Finance: A Panel Study of Small Firms in High-Tech Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(1), pages 38-51, February.
    29. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    30. Andrea Mina & Henry Lahr & Alan Hughes, 2013. "The demand and supply of external finance for innovative firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(4), pages 869-901, August.
    31. Coad, Alex & Rao, Rekha, 2008. "Innovation and firm growth in high-tech sectors: A quantile regression approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 633-648, May.
    32. Silvia Magri, 2009. "The financing of small innovative firms: the Italian case," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 181-204.
    33. Lee, Neil & Brown, Ross, 2016. "Innovation, SMEs and the liability of distance: the demand and supply of bank funding in peripheral UK regions," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 66215, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    34. Mark Freel, 2007. "Are Small Innovators Credit Rationed?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 23-35, January.
    35. Elisa Ughetto & Giuseppe Scellato & Marc Cowling, 2017. "Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 319-337, August.
    36. Paul Westhead & David Storey, 1997. "Financial constraints on the growth of high technology small firms in the United Kingdom," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(2), pages 197-201.
    37. Marc Cowling, 2016. "You can lead a firm to R&D but can you make it innovate? UK evidence from SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 565-577, April.
    38. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    39. Ben Craig & William Jackson & James Thomson, 2008. "Credit market failure intervention: Do government sponsored small business credit programs enrich poorer areas?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 345-360, April.
    40. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    41. Saadani, Youssef & Arvai, Zsofia & Rocha, Roberto, 2011. "A review of credit guarantee schemes in the Middle East and North Africa Region," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5612, The World Bank.
    42. Boschi, Melisso & Girardi, Alessandro & Ventura, Marco, 2014. "Partial credit guarantees and SMEs financing," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 182-194.
    43. Honohan, Patrick, 2010. "Partial credit guarantees: Principles and practice," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 1-9, April.
    44. Johann Burgstaller, 2013. "Bank Office Outreach, Structure and Performance in Regional Banking Markets," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(7), pages 1131-1155, July.
    45. J. David Brown & John S. Earle, 2017. "Finance and Growth at the Firm Level: Evidence from SBA Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 72(3), pages 1039-1080, June.
    46. Allan Riding & Judith Madill & George Haines, 2007. "Incrementality of SME Loan Guarantees," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 47-61, June.
    47. Amore, Mario Daniele & Schneider, Cédric & Žaldokas, Alminas, 2013. "Credit supply and corporate innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 835-855.
    48. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
    49. Cumming, Douglas & Dai, Na, 2010. "Local bias in venture capital investments," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 362-380, June.
    50. Giusy Cannone & Elisa Ughetto, 2014. "Funding Innovation at Regional Level: An Analysis of a Public Policy Intervention in the Piedmont Region," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(2), pages 270-283, February.
    51. Rudy Aernoudt, 2005. "Executive forum: Seven ways to stimulate business angels' investments," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(4), pages 359-371, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ondřej Dvouletý & Stjepan Srhoj & Smaranda Pantea, 2021. "Public SME grants and firm performance in European Union: A systematic review of empirical evidence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(1), pages 243-263, June.
    2. Rama Iyer, Subramanian & Sankaran, Harikumar & Walsh, Steve T., 2020. "Influence of Director Expertise on Capital Structure and Cash Holdings in High-Tech Firms," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
    3. Hyonok Kim & Yukihiro Yasuda, 2019. "Accounting information quality and guaranteed loans: evidence from Japanese SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 1033-1050, December.
    4. Yang, Zhenbing & Chen, Zhuo & Shi, Qi & Yan, Bing, 2021. "Does outward foreign direct investment increase debt ratio? Firm-level evidence from China," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-12.
    5. Li, Bin & Liang, Yilan & Shahab, Yasir & Gull, Ammar Ali & Ashraf, Naeem, 2022. "Parent-subsidiary dispersion, cost of debt and debt default: Evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 107(C).
    6. David Aristei & Gabriele Angori, 2022. "Heterogeneity and state dependence in firms’ access to bank credit," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 59(1), pages 47-78, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sasan Bakhtiari & Robert Breunig & Lisa Magnani & Jacquelyn Zhang, 2020. "Financial Constraints and Small and Medium Enterprises: A Review," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 96(315), pages 506-523, December.
    2. Giraudo, Emanuele & Giudici, Giancarlo & Grilli, Luca, 2019. "Entrepreneurship policy and the financing of young innovative companies: Evidence from the Italian Startup Act," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(9), pages 1-1.
    3. Elisa Ughetto & Giuseppe Scellato & Marc Cowling, 2017. "Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 319-337, August.
    4. Bertoni, Fabio & Martí, Jose & Reverte, Carmelo, 2019. "The impact of government-supported participative loans on the growth of entrepreneurial ventures," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 371-384.
    5. Edoardo Ferrucci & Roberto Guida & Valentina Meliciani, 2021. "Financial constraints and the growth and survival of innovative start‐ups: An analysis of Italian firms," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 27(2), pages 364-386, March.
    6. Andrea Bellucci & Luca Pennacchio & Alberto Zazzaro, 2019. "R&D Subsidies and Firms’ Debt Financing," CSEF Working Papers 527, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    7. Grimsby, Gjermund, 2018. "Partly risky, partly solid – Performance study of public innovation loans," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(7), pages 1344-1365.
    8. Giebel, Marek & Kraft, Kornelius, 2020. "Bank credit supply and firm innovation behavior in the financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    9. Giebel, Marek & Kraft, Kornelius, 2017. "External financing constraints and firm's innovative activities during the financial crisis," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-064, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    10. Giebel, Marek & Kraft, Kornelius, 2018. "Bank credit supply and firm innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 18-011, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    11. Peter Egger & Christian Keuschnigg, 2015. "Innovation, Trade, and Finance," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 121-157, May.
    12. Peter Hennecke & Doris Neuberger & Dirk Ulbricht, 2019. "The economic and fiscal benefits of guarantee banks in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 771-794, October.
    13. Spatareanu, Mariana & Manole, Vlad & Kabiri, Ali, 2019. "Do bank liquidity shocks hamper firms’ innovation?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    14. Georgios Efthyvoulou & Priit Vahter, 2016. "Financial Constraints, Innovation Performance and Sectoral Disaggregation," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(2), pages 125-158, March.
    15. Giacinto Micucci & Paola Rossi, 2017. "Financing R&D investments: an analysis on Italian manufacturing firms and their lending banks," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 44(1), pages 23-49, March.
    16. Francesco Aiello & Graziella Bonanno & Stefania P. S. Rossi, 2020. "How firms finance innovation. Further empirics from European SMEs," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 71(4), pages 689-714, November.
    17. Shusen Qi & Steven Ongena, 2020. "Fuel the Engine: Bank Credit and Firm Innovation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 115-147, April.
    18. Giebel, Marek & Kraft, Kornelius, 2020. "R&D investment under financing constraints," ZEW Discussion Papers 20-018, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    19. Christian Keuschnigg & Evelyn Ribi, 2010. "Business Taxation, Corporate Finance and Economic Performance," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2010 2010-04, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
    20. Raphaël Chiappini & Samira Demaria & Benjamin Montmartin & Sophie Pommet, 2020. "Can Direct Innovation Subsidies Relax SMEs' Credit Constraints?," GREDEG Working Papers 2020-09, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cost of debt; High tech firms; Public loan guarantee scheme; Loan default;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:127:y:2018:i:c:p:166-176. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401625 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401625 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.