IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/respol/v44y2015i3p651-668.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The evolution of networks of innovators within and across borders: Evidence from patent data

Author

Listed:
  • Morescalchi, Andrea
  • Pammolli, Fabio
  • Penner, Orion
  • Petersen, Alexander M.
  • Riccaboni, Massimo

Abstract

Recent studies on the geography of knowledge networks have documented a negative impact of physical distance and institutional borders upon research and development (R&D) collaborations. Though it is widely recognized that geographic constraints and national borders impede the diffusion of knowledge, less attention has been devoted to the temporal evolution of these constraints. In this study we use data on patents filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) for OECD countries to analyze the impact of physical distance and country borders on inter-regional links in four different networks over the period 1988–2009: (1) co-inventorship, (2) patent citations, (3) inventor mobility and (4) the location of R&D laboratories. We find the constraint imposed by country borders and distance decreased until mid-1990s then started to grow, particularly for distance. The intensity of European cross-country inventor collaborations increased at a higher pace than their non-European counterparts until 2004, with no significant relative progress thereafter. For geographical networks of mobility, R&D activities and patent citations we cannot detect any substantial progress in European research integration above and beyond the common global trend.

Suggested Citation

  • Morescalchi, Andrea & Pammolli, Fabio & Penner, Orion & Petersen, Alexander M. & Riccaboni, Massimo, 2015. "The evolution of networks of innovators within and across borders: Evidence from patent data," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 651-668.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:44:y:2015:i:3:p:651-668
    DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2014.10.015
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733314001905
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jason Owen-Smith & Massimo Riccaboni & Fabio Pammolli & Walter W. Powell, 2002. "A Comparison of U.S. and European University-Industry Relations in the Life Sciences," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 24-43, January.
    2. Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin & Hagedoorn, John & Jaffe, Adam B., 2006. "Do alliances promote knowledge flows?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 5-33, April.
    3. Fischer, Manfred M. & Scherngell, Thomas & Jansenberger, Eva, 2005. "The Geography of Knowledge Spillovers between High-Technology Firms in Europe. Evidence from a Spatial Interaction Modelling Perspective," MPRA Paper 77786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    5. Gerybadze, Alexander & Reger, Guido, 1999. "Globalization of R&D: recent changes in the management of innovation in transnational corporations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 251-274, March.
    6. Rosina Moreno & Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2005. "Spatial spillovers and innovation activity in European regions," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 37(10), pages 1793-1812, October.
    7. Montobbio, Fabio & Sterzi, Valerio, 2013. "The Globalization of Technology in Emerging Markets: A Gravity Model on the Determinants of International Patent Collaborations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 281-299.
    8. Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2009. "Knowledge flows across European regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(3), pages 669-690, September.
    9. Ernest Miguélez & Rosina Moreno, 2013. "“Mobility, networks and innovation: The role of regions’ absorptive capacity”," IREA Working Papers 201316, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Oct 2013.
    10. Jean-François Brun & Céline Carrère & Patrick Guillaumont & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Has Distance Died? Evidence from a Panel Gravity Model," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 13, pages 299-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    11. Paul Almeida & Bruce Kogut, 1999. "Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 905-917, July.
    12. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    13. Angrist, Joshua D. & Krueger, Alan B., 1999. "Empirical strategies in labor economics," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 23, pages 1277-1366 Elsevier.
    14. repec:spr:portec:v:1:y:2002:i:2:d:10.1007_s10258-002-0010-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Phene, Anupama & Almeida, Paul, 2003. "How do firms evolve? The patterns of technological evolution of semiconductor subsidiaries," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 349-367, June.
    16. Jinyoung Kim & Sangjoon John Lee & Gerald Marschke, 2009. "International Knowledge Flows: Evidence from an Inventor-Firm Matched Data Set," NBER Chapters,in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 321-348 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Frenken, Koen & Hardeman, Sjoerd & Hoekman, Jarno, 2009. "Spatial scientometrics: Towards a cumulative research program," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 222-232.
    18. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2009. "Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(3).
    19. Granstrand, Ove, 1999. "Internationalization of corporate R&D: a study of Japanese and Swedish corporations1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 275-302, March.
    20. Gaspar, Jess & Glaeser, Edward L., 1998. "Information Technology and the Future of Cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 136-156, January.
    21. Thomas Scherngell & Yuanjia Hu, 2011. "Collaborative Knowledge Production in China: Regional Evidence from a Gravity Model Approach," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 755-772.
    22. Ernest Miguélez & Rosina Moreno, 2013. "Do Labour Mobility and Technological Collaborations Foster Geographical Knowledge Diffusion? The Case of European Regions," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 321-354, June.
    23. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1993. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-598.
    24. Roderik Ponds, 2009. "The limits to internationalization of scientific research collaboration," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 76-94, February.
    25. Picci, Lucio, 2010. "The internationalization of inventive activity: A gravity model using patent data," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1070-1081, October.
    26. Jarno Hoekman & Thomas Scherngell & Koen Frenken & Robert Tijssen, 2013. "Acquisition of European research funds and its effect on international scientific collaboration," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(1), pages 23-52, January.
    27. Koen Frenken, 2002. "A New Indicator of European Integration and an Application to Collaboration in Scientific Research," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 345-361.
    28. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-623, June.
    29. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, March.
    30. Thomas Scherngell & Michael J. Barber, 2009. "Spatial interaction modelling of cross-region R&D collaborations: empirical evidence from the 5th EU framework programme," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(3), pages 531-546, August.
    31. Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-333, March.
    32. Jarno Hoekman & Koen Frenken & Frank Oort, 2009. "The geography of collaborative knowledge production in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(3), pages 721-738, September.
    33. Rene Belderbos & Bart Leten & Shinya Suzuki, 2013. "How global is R&D? Firm-level determinants of home-country bias in R&D," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(8), pages 765-786, October.
    34. Patel, Pari & Vega, Modesto, 1999. "Patterns of internationalisation of corporate technology: location vs. home country advantages1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 145-155, March.
    35. Xavier Giroud, 2013. "Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(2), pages 861-915.
    36. James E. Anderson, 2011. "The Gravity Model," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 133-160, September.
    37. Agrawal, Ajay & Kapur, Devesh & McHale, John, 2008. "How do spatial and social proximity influence knowledge flows? Evidence from patent data," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 258-269, September.
    38. Wolfgang Keller, 2004. "International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 752-782, September.
    39. Jeremy Howells, 2012. "The geography of knowledge: never so close but never so far apart," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(5), pages 1003-1020, September.
    40. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2009. "Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 439-468, July.
    41. Stéphane Maraut & Hélène Dernis & Colin Webb & Vincenzo Spiezia & Dominique Guellec, 2008. "The OECD REGPAT Database: A Presentation," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2008/2, OECD Publishing.
    42. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
    43. Hoekman, Jarno & Frenken, Koen & Tijssen, Robert J.W., 2010. "Research collaboration at a distance: Changing spatial patterns of scientific collaboration within Europe," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 662-673, June.
    44. John H. Dunning & Sarianna M. Lundan, 2009. "The Internationalization of Corporate R&D: A Review of the Evidence and Some Policy Implications for Home Countries -super-1," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 26(1-2), pages 13-33, January.
    45. Ron Boschma, 2005. "Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 61-74.
    46. Thomas Scherngell & Michael Barber, 2011. "Distinct spatial characteristics of industrial and public research collaborations: evidence from the fifth EU Framework Programme," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 46(2), pages 247-266, April.
    47. Rikhil Bhavnani & Natalia T. Tamirisa & Arvind Subramanian & David T. Coe, 2002. "The Missing Globalization Puzzle," IMF Working Papers 02/171, International Monetary Fund.
    48. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
    49. Maurseth, Per Botolf & Verspagen, Bart, 2002. " Knowledge Spillovers in Europe: A Patent Citations Analysis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 104(4), pages 531-545, December.
    50. Mario A. Maggioni & T. Erika Uberti, 2007. "Inter-regional Knowledge Flows in Europe: An Econometric Analysis," Chapters,in: Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    51. Colin Webb & Hélène Dernis & Dietmar Harhoff & Karin Hoisl, 2005. "Analysing European and International Patent Citations: A Set of EPO Patent Database Building Blocks," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2005/9, OECD Publishing.
    52. Freeman, Chris, 1995. "The 'National System of Innovation' in Historical Perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 5-24, February.
    53. James P. LeSage & Manfred M. Fischer & Thomas Scherngell, 2007. "Knowledge spillovers across Europe: Evidence from a Poisson spatial interaction model with spatial effects," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 393-421, August.
    54. Jung Won Sonn & Michael Storper, 2008. "The increasing importance of geographical proximity in knowledge production: an analysis of US patent citations, 1975 – 1997," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 40(5), pages 1020-1039, May.
    55. J. Scott Long & Jeremy Freese, 2006. "Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables using Stata, 2nd Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, edition 2, number long2, April.
    56. Freeman, C., 1991. "Networks of innovators: A synthesis of research issues," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 499-514, October.
    57. Florida, Richard, 1997. "The globalization of R&D: Results of a survey of foreign-affiliated R&D laboratories in the USA," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 85-103, March.
    58. Roderik Ponds & Frank van Oort & Koen Frenken, 2007. "The geographical and institutional proximity of research collaboration," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 423-443, August.
    59. M. Ozman, 2009. "Inter-firm networks and innovation: a survey of literature," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 39-67.
    60. Jasjit Singh, 2007. "Asymmetry of knowledge spillovers between MNCs and host country firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(5), pages 764-786, September.
    61. Luigi Aldieri, 2011. "Technological and geographical proximity effects on knowledge spillovers: evidence from the US patent citations," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(6), pages 597-607, January.
    62. Tom Broekel & Pierre-Alexandre Balland & Martijn Burger & Frank van Oort, 2013. "Modeling Knowledge Networks in Economic Geography: A Discussion of Four Empirical Strategies," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1325, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Dec 2013.
    63. Giovanni Peri, 2005. "Determinants of Knowledge Flows and Their Effect on Innovation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 308-322, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hsiehchen, David & Espinoza, Magdalena & Hsieh, Antony, 2016. "Hypoallometric scaling in international collaborations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 444(C), pages 188-193.
    2. Miguélez, Ernest & Moreno, Rosina, 2015. "Knowledge flows and the absorptive capacity of regions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 833-848.
    3. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:125-136 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Florian Seliger, 2016. "What determines international and inter-sectoral knowledge flows? The impact of absorptive capacity, technological distance and spillovers," KOF Working papers 16-415, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    5. repec:spr:scient:v:113:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2488-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Laurent R. Bergé, 2017. "Network proximity in the geography of research collaboration," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(4), pages 785-815, November.
    7. Thomas Brenner, 2014. "The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth – An Empirical Analysis of Different Effects in Less and More Developed Countries," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2014-05, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    8. Orazbayev, Sultan, 2017. "International knowledge flows and the administrative barriers to mobility," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1655-1665.
    9. Sun, Yutao, 2016. "The structure and dynamics of intra- and inter-regional research collaborative networks: The case of China (1985–2008)," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 70-82.
    10. repec:spr:anresc:v:61:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s00168-017-0857-y is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Alexander Petersen, 2014. "Mobility of Inventors in the Bio-pharmaceutical Industry," Working Papers SWITCH 04-2014, Competitività, Regole, Mercati (CERM).
    12. Yutao Sun & Kai Liu, 2016. "Proximity effect, preferential attachment and path dependence in inter-regional network: a case of China’s technology transaction," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 108(1), pages 201-220, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Geography of knowledge; Networks of innovators; European integration; Spatial proximity; Cross-border collaboration; Gravity model;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • D89 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:44:y:2015:i:3:p:651-668. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.