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A New Indicator of European Integration and an Application to Collaboration in Scientific Research

Author

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  • Koen Frenken

Abstract

The goal of this study is to develop a comprehensive indicator of integration among countries within a supranational system. Integration is not analysed in terms of the growth in interactions among countries, but in terms of the matrix distribution of interactions among countries. Integration can then be indicated in terms of interaction biases among countries measured by the difference between the observed matrix distribution and the hypothetical random distribution. The indicator is applied to data on research collaborations among European research institutions (1993-2000). Evidence is found that the European science system has indeed become more integrated. The higher level of integration has resulted exclusively from a more evenly distributed pattern of European collaborations, while the strong bias towards intra-national collaborations persisted. The results point to the persistence of national science systems. A future research agenda and science policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Koen Frenken, 2002. "A New Indicator of European Integration and an Application to Collaboration in Scientific Research," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 345-361.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecsysr:v:14:y:2002:i:4:p:345-361
    DOI: 10.1080/0953531022000024833
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Boschma, Ron & Frenken, Koen, 2002. "Why is economic geography an evolutionary science?," ERSA conference papers ersa02p320, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Morescalchi, Andrea & Pammolli, Fabio & Penner, Orion & Petersen, Alexander M. & Riccaboni, Massimo, 2015. "The evolution of networks of innovators within and across borders: Evidence from patent data," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 651-668.
    3. Otto Raspe & Frank Van Oort & Martijn Burger, 2006. "Economic Networks and Urban Complementarities in the Dutch Randstad Region," ERSA conference papers ersa06p827, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Hoekman, Jarno & Frenken, Koen & Tijssen, Robert J.W., 2010. "Research collaboration at a distance: Changing spatial patterns of scientific collaboration within Europe," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 662-673, June.
    5. Jarno Hoekman & Koen Frenken & Frank Oort, 2009. "The geography of collaborative knowledge production in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(3), pages 721-738, September.
    6. Leydesdorff, Loet & Wagner, Caroline S. & Bornmann, Lutz, 2014. "The European Union, China, and the United States in the top-1% and top-10% layers of most-frequently cited publications: Competition and collaborations," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 606-617.
    7. repec:spr:scient:v:99:y:2014:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-013-1224-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:spr:scient:v:112:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2386-y is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Roderik Ponds, 2009. "The limits to internationalization of scientific research collaboration," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 76-94, February.
    10. Cantner, Uwe & Rake, Bastian, 2014. "International research networks in pharmaceuticals: Structure and dynamics," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 333-348.
    11. repec:spr:scient:v:100:y:2014:i:1:d:10.1007_s11192-013-1201-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Frenken, Koen & Hardeman, Sjoerd & Hoekman, Jarno, 2009. "Spatial scientometrics: Towards a cumulative research program," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 222-232.
    13. repec:spr:scient:v:78:y:2009:i:1:d:10.1007_s11192-007-1970-y is not listed on IDEAS

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