IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

New Silicon Valleys or a new species? Commoditization of knowledge work and the rise of knowledge services clusters

  • Manning, Stephan
Registered author(s):

    This paper explores knowledge services clusters (KSCs) as a distinct and increasingly important form of geographic cluster, in particular in developing countries: KSCs are defined as geographic concentrations of lower-cost skills serving global demand for increasingly commoditized knowledge services. Based on prior research on clusters and services offshoring, and data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN), major properties and contingencies of KSC growth are discussed and compared with both high-tech clusters and low-cost manufacturing clusters. Special emphasis is put on the ambivalent effect of commoditization of knowledge work on KSC growth: It is proposed that KSCs attract most client projects if service commoditization is medium, whereas higher or lower commoditization either increases global competitive pressure or lowers demand and economies of scale and scope. KSC attractiveness is further related to the perceived availability of skills at relatively low costs, and cluster connectedness with client economies through corporate networks and professional communities. Findings not only advance current debates on clusters, global services sourcing, and the geography of knowledge production, but also have important policy implications.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733312001606
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

    Volume (Year): 42 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 379-390

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:42:y:2013:i:2:p:379-390
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Mauricio Mesquita Moreira, 2004. "Fear of China: Is There a Future for Manufacturing in Latin America?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 45778, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Patibandla, Murali & Petersen, Bent, 2002. "Role of Transnational Corporations in the Evolution of a High-Tech Industry: The Case of India's Software Industry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1561-1577, September.
    3. Arie Y Lewin & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters, 2009. "Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(6), pages 901-925, August.
    4. Runjuan Liu & Dorothee J Feils & Barry Scholnick, 2011. "Why are different services outsourced to different countries?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(4), pages 558-571, May.
    5. Chaminade, Cristina & Vang, Jan, 2008. "Globalisation of Knowledge Production and Regional Innovation Policy: Supporting Specialized Hubs in the Bangalore Software Industry," Papers in Innovation Studies 2008/20, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    6. Edward Malecki, 2010. "Global Knowledge and Creativity: New Challenges for Firms and Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(8), pages 1033-1052.
    7. Saxenian, AnnaLee & Hsu, Jinn-Yuh, 2001. "The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection: Technical Communities and Industrial Upgrading," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 893-920, December.
    8. Dieter Ernst, 2000. "Global Production Networks and the Changing Geography of Innovation Systems: Implications for Developing Countries," Economics Study Area Working Papers 09, East-West Center, Economics Study Area.
    9. Jorge Niosi & F. Ted Tschang, 2009. "The strategies of Chinese and Indian software multinationals: implications for internationalization theory," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 269-294, April.
    10. Paul Almeida & Bruce Kogut, 1999. "Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 905-917, July.
    11. Mehmet Demirbag & Keith W. Glaister, 2010. "Factors Determining Offshore Location Choice for R&D Projects: A Comparative Study of Developed and Emerging Regions," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(s2), pages 1534-1560, December.
    12. Jaeyong Song & Paul Almeida & Geraldine Wu, 2003. "Learning--by--Hiring: When Is Mobility More Likely to Facilitate Interfirm Knowledge Transfer?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(4), pages 351-365, April.
    13. David L. Levy, 2005. "Offshoring in the New Global Political Economy," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 685-693, 05.
    14. Arora, Ashish & Arunachalam, V. S. & Asundi, Jai & Fernandes, Ronald, 2001. "The Indian software services industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1267-1287, October.
    15. Maryann Feldman & Johanna Francis & Janet Bercovitz, 2005. "Creating a Cluster While Building a Firm: Entrepreneurs and the Formation of Industrial Clusters," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 129-141.
    16. Ram Mudambi, 2008. "Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 699-725, September.
    17. Simona Iammarino & Philip McCann, 2006. "The Structure and Evolution of Industrial Clusters: Transactions, Technology and Knowledge Spillovers," SPRU Working Paper Series 138, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
    18. Walter Kuemmerle, 1999. "The Drivers of Foreign Direct Investment into Research and Development: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(1), pages 1-24, March.
    19. Neil M. Coe & Peter Dicken & Martin Hess, 2008. "Global production networks: realizing the potential," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(3), pages 271-295, May.
    20. Andrea Morrison & Carlo Pietrobelli & Roberta Rabellotti, 2007. "Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries," Working Papers 117, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.
    21. Carlsson, Bo, 2006. "Internationalization of innovation systems: A survey of the literature," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 56-67, February.
    22. Sonderegger, Petra & Täube, Florian, 2010. "Cluster life cycle and diaspora effects: Evidence from the Indian IT cluster in Bangalore," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 383-397, December.
    23. Srilata Zaheer & Anna Lamin & Mani Subramani, 2009. "Cluster capabilities or ethnic ties? Location choice by foreign and domestic entrants in the services offshoring industry in India," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(6), pages 944-968, August.
    24. Peter D. Ørberg Jensen & Torben Pedersen, 2011. "The Economic Geography of Offshoring: The Fit between Activities and Local Context," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 352-372, 03.
    25. Martin Kenney & Silvia Massini & Thomas P Murtha, 2009. "INTRODUCTIONOffshoring administrative and technical work: New fields for understanding the global enterprise," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(6), pages 887-900, August.
    26. Altenburg, Tilman & Schmitz, Hubert & Stamm, Andreas, 2008. "Breakthrough China's and India's Transition from Production to Innovation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 325-344, February.
    27. Michael E. Porter, 2000. "Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 14(1), pages 15-34, February.
    28. Mari Sako, 2006. "Outsourcing and Offshoring: Implications for Productivity of Business Services," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(4), pages 499-512, Winter.
    29. Jonathan P. Doh, 2005. "Offshore Outsourcing: Implications for International Business and Strategic Management Theory and Practice," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 695-704, 05.
    30. Gerybadze, Alexander & Reger, Guido, 1999. "Globalization of R&D: recent changes in the management of innovation in transnational corporations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 251-274, March.
    31. Altenburg, Tilman & Meyer-Stamer, JORG, 1999. "How to Promote Clusters: Policy Experiences from Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 1693-1713, September.
    32. Khalid Nadvi & Gerhard Halder, 2005. "Local clusters in global value chains: exploring dynamic linkages between Germany and Pakistan," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(5), pages 339-363, September.
    33. Carliss Y. Baldwin & Kim B. Clark, 2000. "Design Rules, Volume 1: The Power of Modularity," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262024667, June.
    34. Kuldeep Kumar & Paul C van Fenema & Mary Ann von Glinow, 2009. "Offshoring and the global distribution of work: Implications for task interdependence theory and practice," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(4), pages 642-667, May.
    35. Dossani, Rafiq & Kenney, Martin, 2007. "The Next Wave of Globalization: Relocating Service Provision to India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 772-791, May.
    36. John Humphrey & Hubert Schmitz, 2002. "How does insertion in global value chains affect upgrading in industrial clusters?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1017-1027.
    37. Manning, Stephan & Ricart, Joan E. & Rosatti Rique, Maria Soledad & Lewin, Arie Y., 2010. "From blind spots to hotspots: How knowledge services clusters develop and attract foreign investment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 369-382, December.
    38. Kesidou, Effie & Romijn, Henny, 2008. "Do Local Knowledge Spillovers Matter for Development? An Empirical Study of Uruguay's Software Cluster," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 2004-2028, October.
    39. Riddle, Liesl & Hrivnak, George A. & Nielsen, Tjai M., 2010. "Transnational diaspora entrepreneurship in emerging markets: Bridging institutional divides," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 398-411, December.
    40. David L Levy, 1995. "International Sourcing and Supply Chain Stability," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(2), pages 343-360, June.
    41. Breschi, Stefano & Malerba, Franco, 2001. "The Geography of Innovation and Economic Clustering: Some Introductory Notes," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 817-33, December.
    42. Arie Lewin & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters, 2009. "Why are companies offshoring innovation ?The emerging global race for talent," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9073, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    43. Richard B. Freeman, 2005. "Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?," NBER Working Papers 11457, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    44. Jonathan P Doh & Kraiwinee Bunyaratavej & Eugene D Hahn, 2009. "Separable but not equal: The location determinants of discrete services offshoring activities," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(6), pages 926-943, August.
    45. Jenkins, Rhys & Peters, Enrique Dussel & Moreira, Mauricio Mesquita, 2008. "The Impact of China on Latin America and the Caribbean," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 235-253, February.
    46. Ashish Arora & Jai Asundi, 1999. "Quality Certification and the Economics of Contract Software Development A Study of the Indian Software Industry," NBER Working Papers 7260, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    47. Justin Barnes & Mike Morris, 2004. "The German connection: shifting hegemony in the political economy of the South African automotive industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(5), pages 789-814, October.
    48. Uday M. Apte & Richard O. Mason, 1995. "Global Disaggregation of Information-Intensive Services," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(7), pages 1250-1262, July.
    49. Alan M. Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A Perspective on Regional and Global Strategies of Multinational Enterprises," Working Papers 2004-19, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
    50. Suma S. Athreye, 2005. "The Indian software industry and its evolving service capability," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 393-418, June.
    51. Henry Wai-chung Yeung, 2009. "Regional Development and the Competitive Dynamics of Global Production Networks: An East Asian Perspective," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(3), pages 325-351.
    52. Dieter Ernst, 2005. "Complexity And Internationalisation Of Innovation — Why Is Chip Design Moving To Asia?," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 9(01), pages 47-73.
    53. Tung, Rosalie L., 2008. "Brain circulation, diaspora, and international competitiveness," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 298-304, October.
    54. Jörg Sydow & Frank Lerch & Udo Staber, 2010. "Planning for Path Dependence? The Case of a Network in the Berlin-Brandenburg Optics Cluster," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 86(2), pages 173-195, 04.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:42:y:2013:i:2:p:379-390. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.