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The strategies of Chinese and Indian software multinationals: implications for internationalization theory

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  • Jorge Niosi
  • F. Ted Tschang

Abstract

China and India are emerging as major entrants into the international software industry. Both are rapidly learning through outsourcing with multinational enterprises (MNEs) from advanced nations, yet their paths to this dynamic sector are very different. Chinese software firms have focused on their domestic market by working with foreign MNEs, while they move cautiously abroad. Indian firms, which are already large, continue to expand overseas as well as to climb the value chain. Different approaches to MNEs provide useful perspectives. At the same time, the innovation systems approach is necessary to explain the foundations of the industry. The article provides hypotheses and tests them. It concludes that learning internationalization processes are different in Chinese and Indian MNEs, and provides explanations for the different patterns. Copyright 2009 , Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge Niosi & F. Ted Tschang, 2009. "The strategies of Chinese and Indian software multinationals: implications for internationalization theory," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 269-294, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:indcch:v:18:y:2009:i:2:p:269-294
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    Cited by:

    1. Manning, Stephan, 2013. "New Silicon Valleys or a new species? Commoditization of knowledge work and the rise of knowledge services clusters," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 379-390.
    2. repec:spr:scient:v:91:y:2012:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-012-0653-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Manish Popli & Ashutosh Sinha, 2014. "Determinants of early movers in cross-border merger and acquisition wave in an emerging market: A study of Indian firms," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 1075-1099, December.
    4. Suma Athreye & Sandeep Kapur, 2015. "Capital and Technology Flows: changing technology-acquisition strategies in developing countries," Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance 1511, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
    5. Cusmano, Lucia & Morrison, Andrea & Rabellotti, Roberta, 2010. "Catching up Trajectories in the Wine Sector: A Comparative Study of Chile, Italy, and South Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 1588-1602, November.
    6. Raman, Revti & Chadee, Doren & Roxas, Banjo & Michailova, Snejina, 2013. "Effects of Partnership Quality, Talent Management, and Global Mindset on Performance of Offshore IT Service Providers in India," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 333-346.
    7. Valeria Gattai, 2013. "The dragon and the elephant on the way to Italy," ECONOMIA E POLITICA INDUSTRIALE, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2013(4), pages 63-87.
    8. Monica Plechero & Cristina Chaminade, 2016. "The role of regional sectoral specialisation on the geography of innovation networks: a comparison between firms located in regions in developed and emerging economies," International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 8(2), pages 148-171.
    9. Ping Lv & Monica Plechero & Rakesh Basant, 2013. "International competitive strategy choices: comparing firms in China and India," Asia Pacific Business Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 542-558, October.
    10. Valeria, Gattai & Rajssa, Mechelli & Piergiovanna, Natale, 2016. "FDI and Heterogeneous Firms: Evidence from BRIC Countries," Working Papers 322, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised 18 Jan 2016.
    11. Christian Keen & Yuanyuan Wu, 2011. "An ambidextrous learning model for the internationalization of firms from emerging economies," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 316-339, December.
    12. Tschang, F. Ted, 2011. "A Comparison of the Industrialization Paths for Asian Services Outsourcing Industries, and Implications for Poverty Alleviation," ADBI Working Papers 313, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    13. repec:eee:intman:v:23:y:2017:i:3:p:242-254 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Buckley, Peter J. & Hashai, Niron, 2014. "The role of technological catch up and domestic market growth in the genesis of emerging country based multinationals," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 423-437.
    15. Casson, Mark & Porter, Lynda & Wadeson, Nigel, 2016. "Internalization theory: An unfinished agenda," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1223-1234.
    16. Iris Claus & Les Oxley & Peilei Fan, 2014. "Innovation In China," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(4), pages 725-745, September.
    17. Stephan Manning & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters & Arie Lewin, 2012. "Global Co-Evolution of Firm Boundaries: Process Commoditization, Capabilities Development, and Path Dependencies," Working Papers CEB 12-009, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    18. F Ted Tschang, 2011. "A Comparison of the Industrialization Paths for Asian Services Outsourcing Industries, and Implications for Poverty Alleviation," Working Papers id:4537, eSocialSciences.
    19. Lahiri, Somnath & Kedia, Ben L., 2011. "Co-evolution of institutional and organizational factors in explaining offshore outsourcing," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 252-263, June.
    20. Jorge Niosi, 2010. "Building National and Regional Innovation Systems," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14006.
    21. Gaur, Ajai S. & Kumar, Vikas & Singh, Deeksha, 2014. "Institutions, resources, and internationalization of emerging economy firms," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 12-20.
    22. Dohse, Dirk & Hassink, Robert & Klaerding, Claudia, 2012. "Emerging multinationals, international knowledge flows and economic geography: A research agenda," Kiel Working Papers 1776, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    23. Sidhu, Jatinder S. & Volberda, Henk W., 2011. "Coordination of globally distributed teams: A co-evolution perspective on offshoring," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 278-290, June.

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