IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

On the persistence and volatility in European, American and Asian stocks bull and bear markets

  • Gil-Alana, Luis A.
  • Shittu, Olanrewaju I.
  • Yaya, OlaOluwa S.

In this paper we examine the statistical properties of several stock market indices in Europe, the US and Asia by means of determining the degree of dependence in both the level and the volatility of the processes. In the latter case, we use the squared returns as a proxy for the volatility. We also investigate the cyclical pattern observed in the data and in particular, if the degree of dependence changes depending on whether there is a bull or a bear period. We use fractional integration and GARCH specifications. The results indicate that the indices are all nonstationary I(1) processes with the squared returns displaying a degree of long memory behaviour. With respect to the bull and bear periods, we do not observe a systematic pattern in terms of the degree of persistence though for some of the indices (FTSE, Dax, Hang Seng and STI) there is a higher degree of dependence in both the level and the volatility during the bull periods.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Money and Finance.

Volume (Year): 40 (2014)
Issue (Month): C ()
Pages: 149-162

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:40:y:2014:i:c:p:149-162
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Baillie, Richard T & Chung, Ching-Fan & Tieslau, Margie A, 1996. "Analysing Inflation by the Fractionally Integrated ARFIMA-GARCH Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 23-40, Jan.-Feb..
  2. Francis X. Diebold & Atsushi Inoue, 2000. "Long Memory and Regime Switching," NBER Technical Working Papers 0264, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Bollerslev, Tim & Wright, Jonathan H., 2000. "Semiparametric estimation of long-memory volatility dependencies: The role of high-frequency data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 81-106, September.
  4. Breidt, F. Jay & Crato, Nuno & de Lima, Pedro, 1998. "The detection and estimation of long memory in stochastic volatility," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1-2), pages 325-348.
  5. Jonathan H. Wright & Tim Bollerslev, 1999. "High frequency data, frequency domain inference and volatility forecasting," International Finance Discussion Papers 649, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Cotter, John, 2004. "Uncovering Long Memory in High Frequency UK Futures," MPRA Paper 3525, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. John T. Barkoulas & Christopher F. Baum & Nickolaos Travlos, 1996. "Long Memory in the Greek Stock Market," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 356., Boston College Department of Economics.
  8. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim, 1997. "Intraday periodicity and volatility persistence in financial markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(2-3), pages 115-158, June.
  9. Diebold, Francis X. & Rudebusch, Glenn D., 1989. "Long memory and persistence in aggregate output," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 189-209, September.
  10. Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  11. Andrew W. Lo, 1989. "Long-term Memory in Stock Market Prices," NBER Working Papers 2984, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Mandelbrot, Benoit B, 1971. "When Can Price Be Arbitraged Efficiently? A Limit to the Validity of the Random Walk and Martingale Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 53(3), pages 225-36, August.
  13. Luis A. Gil-Alana, 2006. "Fractional integration and structural breaks at unknown periods of time," Faculty Working Papers 16/06, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  14. John Y. Campbell & Martin Lettau & Burton G. Malkiel & Yexiao Xu, 2000. "Have Individual Stocks Become More Volatile? An Empirical Exploration of Idiosyncratic Risk," NBER Working Papers 7590, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Lobato, I.N. & Savin, N.E., 1996. "Real and Spurious Long Memory Properties of Stock Market Data," Working Papers 96-07, University of Iowa, Department of Economics.
  16. Sebastian Edwards & Javier Gomez Biscarri & Fernando Perez de Gracia, 2003. "Stock Market Cycles, Financial Liberalization and Volatility," NBER Working Papers 9817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Aggarwal, Reena & Inclan, Carla & Leal, Ricardo, 1999. "Volatility in Emerging Stock Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(01), pages 33-55, March.
  18. Gilles Dufrénot & Dominique Guegan & Anne Peguin-Feissolle, 2005. "Modelling squared returns using a SETAR model with long-memory dynamics," Post-Print halshs-00179285, HAL.
  19. Adrian R. Pagan & Kirill A. Sossounov, 2003. "A simple framework for analysing bull and bear markets," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 23-46.
  20. Massimo Guidolin & Allan Timmermann, 2005. "Economic Implications of Bull and Bear Regimes in UK Stock and Bond Returns," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(500), pages 111-143, 01.
  21. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
  22. Charles P. Jones & Mark D. Walker & Jack W. Wilson, 2004. "Analyzing Stock Market Volatility Using Extreme-Day Measures," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 27(4), pages 585-601.
  23. Granger, Clive W. J. & Hyung, Namwon, 2004. "Occasional structural breaks and long memory with an application to the S&P 500 absolute stock returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 399-421, June.
  24. Javier Biscarri & Fernando Gracia, 2004. "Stock market cycles and stock market development in Spain," Spanish Economic Review, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 127-151, 07.
  25. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
  26. Charles S. Bos & Philip Hans Franses & Marius Ooms, 1998. "Long Memory and Level Shifts: Re-Analyzing Inflation Rates," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-039/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  27. Thomas Mikosch & Cătălin Stărică, 2004. "Nonstationarities in Financial Time Series, the Long-Range Dependence, and the IGARCH Effects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 378-390, February.
  28. Gonzalez, Liliana & Powell, John G. & Shi, Jing & Wilson, Antony, 2005. "Two centuries of bull and bear market cycles," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 469-486.
  29. Granger, Clive W. J. & Ding, Zhuanxin, 1996. "Varieties of long memory models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 61-77, July.
  30. Sibbertsen, Philipp, 2001. "Long-memory in volatilities of German stock returns," Technical Reports 2001,42, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.
  31. Kazuhiko Nishina & Nabil Maghrebi & Mark J. Holmes, 2006. "Are Volatility Expectations Characterized By Regime Shifts? Evidence From Implied Volatility Indices," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 06-20, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  32. Sowell, Fallaw, 1992. "Modeling long-run behavior with the fractional ARIMA model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 277-302, April.
  33. Baillie, Richard T., 1996. "Long memory processes and fractional integration in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 5-59, July.
  34. Andrews, Donald W K & Chen, Hong-Yuan, 1994. "Approximately Median-Unbiased Estimation of Autoregressive Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(2), pages 187-204, April.
  35. Lobato, Ignacio N & Savin, N E, 1998. "Real and Spurious Long-Memory Properties of Stock-Market Data: Reply," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(3), pages 280-83, July.
  36. Baillie, Richard T. & Bollerslev, Tim & Mikkelsen, Hans Ole, 1996. "Fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-30, September.
  37. Thomas Mikosch & Catalin Starica, 2004. "Non-stationarities in financial time series, the long range dependence and the IGARCH effects," Econometrics 0412005, EconWPA.
  38. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Long memory relationships and the aggregation of dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 227-238, October.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:40:y:2014:i:c:p:149-162. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.