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Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors

Listed author(s):
  • Gravelle, Hugh
  • Hole, Arne Risa
  • Santos, Rita

In 2008 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 89%, of those of male GPs. We estimate Oaxaca decompositions using OLS models of wages and 2SLS models of income and propose a set of new direct tests for within workplace gender discrimination. The direct tests are based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices with varying proportions of female GPs and with female or male senior partners. These tests provide only weak evidence for discrimination. We also propose a set of indirect tests for discrimination, including a comparison of a GP's actual income with the income they report as an acceptable reward for their job. The indirect tests provide no evidence for gender discrimination within practices.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Health Economics.

Volume (Year): 30 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (July)
Pages: 660-674

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:30:y:2011:i:4:p:660-674
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505560

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  1. Myeong-Su Yun, 2005. "A Simple Solution to the Identification Problem in Detailed Wage Decompositions," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 43(4), pages 766-772, October.
  2. Stephen Morris & Matt Sutton & Hugh Gravelle & Bob Elliott & Arne Hole & Ada Ma & Bonnie Sibbald & Diane Skatun, 2008. "Determinants of General Practitioners' Wages in England," Working Papers 036cherp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
  3. Jones, Andrew M., 2000. "Health econometrics," Handbook of Health Economics, in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 265-344 Elsevier.
  4. Jessica Wolpaw Reyes, 2006. "Do Female Physicians Capture Their Scarcity Value? The Case of OB/GYNs," NBER Working Papers 12528, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Rizzo, John A. & Zeckhauser, Richard J., 2007. "Pushing incomes to reference points: Why do male doctors earn more?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 514-536, July.
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  7. David J . Bashaw & John S . Heywood, 2001. "The Gender Earnings Gap for US Physicians: Has Equality been Achieved?," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 15(3), pages 371-391, 09.
  8. Engelbert Theurl & Hannes Winner, 2010. "The Male-Female Gap in Physician Earnings: Evidence from a Public Health Insurance System," NRN working papers 2010-01, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  9. Meng, Xin, 2004. "Gender earnings gap: the role of firm specific effects," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 555-573, October.
  10. Hugh Gravelle & Arne Risa Hole & Rita Santos, 2011. "Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors," Discussion Papers 11/05, Department of Economics, University of York.
  11. F. L. Jones, 1983. "On Decomposing the Wage Gap: A Critical Comment on Blinder's Method," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(1), pages 126-130.
  12. Marianne Bertrand & Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 2009. "Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors," NBER Working Papers 14681, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  14. Barsky R. & Bound J. & Charles K.K. & Lupton J.P., 2002. "Accounting for the Black-White Wealth Gap: A Nonparametric Approach," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 663-673, September.
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  20. Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta & Kübler, Dorothea, 2005. "Courtesy and Idleness: Gender Differences in Team Work and Team Competition," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 91, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  21. repec:uwp:jhriss:v:8:y:1973:i:4:p:436-455 is not listed on IDEAS
  22. H Gravelle & A Risa Hole, 2008. "Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in professions: the case of English family doctors," Discussion Papers 08/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
  23. Peter Dolton & Donal O'Neill & Olive Sweetman, 1996. "Gender Differences in the Changing Labor Market: The Role of Legislation and Inequality in Changing the Wage Gap for Qualified Workers in the United Kingdom," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(3), pages 549-565.
  24. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
  26. Wood, Robert G & Corcoran, Mary E & Courant, Paul N, 1993. "Pay Differences among the Highly Paid: The Male-Female Earnings Gap in Lawyers' Salaries," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(3), pages 417-441, July.
  27. Ohsfeldt, Robert L. & Culler, Steven D., 1986. "Differences in income between male and female physicians," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 335-346, December.
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  29. Alicia C. Sasser, 2005. "Gender Differences in Physician Pay: Tradeoffs Between Career and Family," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(2).
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