IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/eneeco/v75y2018icp222-238.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Convergence in CO2 emissions: A spatial economic analysis with cross-country interactions

Author

Listed:
  • Rios, Vicente
  • Gianmoena, Lisa

Abstract

This research analyzes the evolution of CO2 emissions per capita in a sample of 141 countries during the period 1970–2014. The study develops a spatially augmented Green Solow model by taking into consideration technological externalities and interdependence in the process of production, which ultimately implies that CO2 emissions in an economy are affected by the economic characteristics in neighboring countries. The empirical model predicts convergence in CO2 emissions among countries which is examined by means of modern dynamic spatial panel econometric techniques. The multimodal distribution of the CO2 emissions is consistent with the existence of three spatial clubs. The space-time dynamics of the three clubs are analyzed by means of the Local Directional Moran Scatterplot and spatial panel model with heterogeneous parameters. Our analysis reveals the hypothesis of spatial convergence clubs is more consistent with the data than the hypothesis of conditional convergence.

Suggested Citation

  • Rios, Vicente & Gianmoena, Lisa, 2018. "Convergence in CO2 emissions: A spatial economic analysis with cross-country interactions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 222-238.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:75:y:2018:i:c:p:222-238
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.08.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988318303050
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ordás Criado, C. & Valente, S. & Stengos, T., 2011. "Growth and pollution convergence: Theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 199-214, September.
    2. Iwata, Hiroki & Okada, Keisuke, 2010. "Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol," MPRA Paper 22299, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Natacha Raffin, 2014. "Education and the Political Economy of Environmental Protection," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 115-116, pages 379-407.
    4. Managi, Shunsuke & Hibiki, Akira & Tsurumi, Tetsuya, 2009. "Does trade openness improve environmental quality?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 346-363, November.
    5. Davide FIASCHI & Lisa GIANMOENA & Angela PARENTI, 2014. "Local Directional Moran Scatter Plot - Ldms," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 40, pages 97-112.
    6. Cem Ertur & Wilfried Koch, 2007. "Growth, technological interdependence and spatial externalities: theory and evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(6), pages 1033-1062.
    7. Yu, Jihai & de Jong, Robert & Lee, Lung-fei, 2012. "Estimation for spatial dynamic panel data with fixed effects: The case of spatial cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 167(1), pages 16-37.
    8. William T. Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Molloy Wilson, 2002. "Reexamining The Empirical Evidence For An Environmental Kuznets Curve," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 541-551, August.
    9. Aichele, Rahel & Felbermayr, Gabriel, 2012. "Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 336-354.
    10. Jihai Yu & Lung-Fei Lee, 2012. "Convergence: A Spatial Dynamic Panel Data Approach," Global Journal of Economics (GJE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(01), pages 1-36.
    11. Paul Elhorst & Eelco Zandberg & Jakob De Haan, 2013. "The Impact of Interaction Effects among Neighbouring Countries on Financial Liberalization and Reform: A Dynamic Spatial Panel Data Approach," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 293-313, September.
    12. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
    13. Lee, Lung-fei & Yu, Jihai, 2010. "Estimation of spatial autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 154(2), pages 165-185, February.
    14. Manfred M. Fischer & James P. LeSage, 2015. "A Bayesian space-time approach to identifying and interpreting regional convergence clubs in Europe," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(4), pages 677-702, November.
    15. Mark Strazicich & John List, 2003. "Are CO 2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(3), pages 263-271, March.
    16. Salim, Ruhul & Yao, Yao & Chen, George S., 2017. "Does human capital matter for energy consumption in China?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 49-59.
    17. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2010. "Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1373, November.
    18. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2013. "The Effect of the Kyoto Protocol on Carbon Emissions," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(4), pages 731-757, September.
    19. Ekaterini Panopoulou & Theologos Pantelidis, 2009. "Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 47-70, September.
    20. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    21. Marbuah, George & Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin, 2017. "Spatial analysis of emissions in Sweden," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 383-394.
    22. Sharma, Susan Sunila, 2011. "Determinants of carbon dioxide emissions: Empirical evidence from 69 countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 376-382, January.
    23. Li, Xuehui & Lin, Boqiang, 2013. "Global convergence in per capita CO2 emissions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 357-363.
    24. Pettersson, Fredrik & Maddison, David & Acar, Sevil & Söderholm, Patrik, 2014. "Convergence of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Review of the Literature," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 7(2), pages 141-178, July.
    25. Durlauf, Steven N & Johnson, Paul A, 1995. "Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 365-384, Oct.-Dec..
    26. Manfred Fischer, 2011. "A spatial Mankiw–Romer–Weil model: theory and evidence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(2), pages 419-436, October.
    27. Leisch, Friedrich, 2006. "A toolbox for K-centroids cluster analysis," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 526-544, November.
    28. repec:adr:anecst:y:2014:i:115-116:p:15 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. William Brock & M. Taylor, 2010. "The Green Solow model," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-153, June.
    30. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    31. Manus I. Midlarsky, 1998. "Democracy and the Environment: An Empirical Assessment," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 35(3), pages 341-361, May.
    32. Almer, Christian & Winkler, Ralph, 2017. "Analyzing the effectiveness of international environmental policies: The case of the Kyoto Protocol," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 125-151.
    33. Joseph E. Aldy, 2007. "Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-369.
    34. Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
    35. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 85-91, February.
    36. Bernard Fingleton & Enrique López‐Bazo, 2006. "Empirical growth models with spatial effects," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 177-198, June.
    37. Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 13 May 2004.
    38. Vicente Rios & Pedro Pascual & Fermín Cabases, 2017. "What drives local government spending in Spain? A dynamic spatial panel approach," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2-3), pages 230-250, July.
    39. Per Fredriksson & Jim Wollscheid, 2007. "Democratic institutions versus autocratic regimes: The case of environmental policy," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 381-393, March.
    40. Torras, Mariano & Boyce, James K., 1998. "Income, inequality, and pollution: a reassessment of the environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-160, May.
    41. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
    42. Zhang, Chuanguo & Lin, Yan, 2012. "Panel estimation for urbanization, energy consumption and CO2 emissions: A regional analysis in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 488-498.
    43. Grunewald, Nicole & Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada, 2016. "Did the Kyoto Protocol fail? An evaluation of the effect of the Kyoto Protocol on CO2 emissions," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, February.
    44. Raymond Gradus & Sjak Smulders, 1993. "The trade-off between environmental care and long-term growth—Pollution in three prototype growth models," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 25-51, February.
    45. Neumayer, Eric, 2003. "Are left-wing party strength and corporatism good for the environment? Evidence from panel analysis of air pollution in OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 203-220, June.
    46. J. Elhorst, 2010. "Applied Spatial Econometrics: Raising the Bar," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 9-28.
    47. Roberto Ezcurra & Vicente Rios, 2015. "Volatility and Regional Growth in Europe: Does Space Matter?," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 344-368, September.
    48. Stefano Magrini, 2007. "Analysing Convergence through the Distribution Dynamics Approach: Why and how?," Working Papers 2007_13, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    49. Joseph Aldy, 2006. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, April.
    50. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2015. "Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 104-115, March.
    51. Hartman, Richard & Kwon, O-Sung, 2005. "Sustainable growth and the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1701-1736, October.
    52. Maddison, David, 2006. "Environmental Kuznets curves: A spatial econometric approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 218-230, March.
    53. Lee, Lung-fei & Yu, Jihai, 2010. "A Spatial Dynamic Panel Data Model With Both Time And Individual Fixed Effects," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(2), pages 564-597, April.
    54. Farzin, Y. Hossein & Bond, Craig A., 2006. "Democracy and environmental quality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 213-235, October.
    55. You, Wan-Hai & Zhu, Hui-Ming & Yu, Keming & Peng, Cheng, 2015. "Democracy, Financial Openness, and Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Heterogeneity Across Existing Emission Levels," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 189-207.
    56. repec:adr:anecst:y:2014:i:115-116 is not listed on IDEAS
    57. Johnson, Paul A. & Takeyama, Lisa N., 2001. "Initial conditions and economic growth in the US states," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 919-927, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Peter S. Sephton, 2020. "Mean Reversion in CO2 Emissions: the Need for Structural Change," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 75(4), pages 953-975, April.
    2. Francesc Amat & Pablo Beramendi & Miriam Hortas-Rico & Vicente Rios, 2020. "How inequality shapes political participation: The role of spatial patterns of political competition," Working Papers. Collection B: Regional and sectoral economics 2002, Universidade de Vigo, GEN - Governance and Economics research Network.
    3. Zhao, Bingyu & Yang, Wanping, 2020. "Does financial development influence CO2 emissions? A Chinese province-level study," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 200(C).
    4. Zhang, Hongwu & Shi, Xunpeng & Cheong, Tsun Se & Wang, Keying, 2020. "Convergence of carbon emissions at the household level in China: A distribution dynamics approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).
    5. Feng Wang & Wenna Fan & Xiangyan Lin & Juan Liu & Xin Ye, 2020. "Does Population Mobility Contribute to Urbanization Convergence? Empirical Evidence from Three Major Urban Agglomerations in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-20, January.
    6. Zheng, Jiali & Mi, Zhifu & Coffman, D'Maris & Milcheva, Stanimira & Shan, Yuli & Guan, Dabo & Wang, Shouyang, 2019. "Regional development and carbon emissions in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 25-36.
    7. Goel, Rajeev K. & Saunoris, James W., 2020. "Spatial spillovers of pollution onto the underground sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    8. Xintao Li & Dong Feng & Jian Li & Zaisheng Zhang, 2019. "Research on the Spatial Network Characteristics and Synergetic Abatement Effect of the Carbon Emissions in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Urban Agglomeration," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(5), pages 1-15, March.
    9. Luo, Yusen & Lu, Zhengnan & Long, Xingle, 2020. "Heterogeneous effects of endogenous and foreign innovation on CO2 emissions stochastic convergence across China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    10. Qi, Shaozhou & Peng, Huarong & Zhang, Xiaoling & Tan, Xiujie, 2019. "Is energy efficiency of Belt and Road Initiative countries catching up or falling behind? Evidence from a panel quantile regression approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 253(C), pages 1-1.
    11. LAWSON, Laté A. & MARTINO, Roberto & NGUYEN-VAN, Phu, 2020. "Environmental convergence and environmental Kuznets curve: A unified empirical framework," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 437(C).
    12. Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & shahbaz, Muhammad & Raheem, Ibrahim, 2020. "Convergence and club convergence of CO2 emissions at state levels: A nonlinear analysis of the USA," MPRA Paper 105355, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Ivanovski, Kris & Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa, 2020. "Convergence and determinants of greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: A regional analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lisa Gianmoena & Vicente Rios, 2018. "The Determinants of CO2 Emissions Differentials with Cross-Country Interaction Effects: A Dynamic Spatial Panel Data Bayesian Model Averaging Approach," Discussion Papers 2018/234, Dipartimento di Economia e Management (DEM), University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    2. Octavio Fernández-Amador & Doris A. Oberdabernig & Patrick Tomberger, 2019. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Bayesian Robust Structural Model," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(4), pages 1265-1286, August.
    3. David I. Stern, 2017. "The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 7-28, April.
    4. Ahmed, Mumtaz & Khan, Atif Maqbool & Bibi, Salma & Zakaria, Muhammad, 2017. "Convergence of per capita CO2 emissions across the globe: Insights via wavelet analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 86-97.
    5. Bhattacharya, Mita & Inekwe, John N. & Sadorsky, Perry, 2020. "Consumption-based and territory-based carbon emissions intensity: Determinants and forecasting using club convergence across countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    6. Liu, Chang & Hong, Tao & Li, Huaifeng & Wang, Lili, 2018. "From club convergence of per capita industrial pollutant emissions to industrial transfer effects: An empirical study across 285 cities in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 300-313.
    7. Juan Antonio Duro & Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2014. "The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita: A regression-based inequality decomposition analysis," Working Papers wpdea1402, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    8. Satoshi Honma & Yushi Yoshida, 2019. "Convergence in pollution terms of trade," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(5), pages 603-627, July.
    9. Cherniwchan, Jevan, 2012. "Economic growth, industrialization, and the environment," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 442-467.
    10. Satoshi Honma & Yushi Yoshida, 2018. "Convergence in pollution terms of trade," Discussion Papers CRR Discussion Paper Series A: General 48, Shiga University, Faculty of Economics,Center for Risk Research.
    11. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2017. "Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: Evidence from club convergence tests," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 365-372.
    12. LAWSON, Laté A. & MARTINO, Roberto & NGUYEN-VAN, Phu, 2020. "Environmental convergence and environmental Kuznets curve: A unified empirical framework," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 437(C).
    13. Jian-Xin Wu & Ling-Yun He, 2017. "The Distribution Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Intensity across Chinese Provinces: A Weighted Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-19, January.
    14. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy & Söderholm, Patrik, 2015. "Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 227-235.
    15. Guilherme De Oliveira & Deise Bourscheidt, 2016. "Convergência Multissetorial Na Emissão De Gases Do Efeito Estufa," Anais do XLIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 43rd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 182, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    16. Roberto Ezcurra & Vicente Rios, 2015. "Volatility and Regional Growth in Europe: Does Space Matter?," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 344-368, September.
    17. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2016. "Club convergence and clustering of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 62-84.
    18. Juan Antonio Duro & Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2014. "The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita: A regression-based inequality decomposition analysis," Working Papers wpdea1402, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    19. Acar, Sevil & Yeldan, A. Erinç, 2018. "Investigating patterns of carbon convergence in an uneven economy: The case of Turkey," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 96-106.
    20. Wu, Jianxin & Wu, Yanrui & Guo, Xiumei & Cheong, Tsun Se, 2016. "Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in Chinese cities: A continuous dynamic distribution approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 207-219.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dynamic spatial panels; Spatial Green Solow model; CO2 emissions; Convergence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:75:y:2018:i:c:p:222-238. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.