IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Money demand in China and time-varying cointegration

  • Zuo, Haomiao
  • Park, Sung Y.

Many studies analyze the money demand using a (fixed coefficient) cointegrating regression model, which may not be appropriate to deal with the money demand of a transition economy like China. This paper investigates this issue using a time-varying cointegration approach based on the quarterly data from 1996 to 2009. We find some interesting results: (i) the estimates of the income elasticities are between 0.60 and 0.75, which are comparable with the previous studies; (ii) the estimated interest rate elasticity supports the argument that the overall effect of the interest rate on the money holding is weak although there are some mild evidences that it has been strengthened in recent years; (iii) the substitution effect of equity asset dominates the wealth effect, especially, during the bullish market period. Our result is robust to the alternative choices of the scale or opportunity cost variables and shows that omission of the stock prices in the money demand function would possibly yield a misspecification problem.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal China Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 22 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 330-343

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:chieco:v:22:y:2011:i:3:p:330-343
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Alicia Garcia-Herrero & Daniel Santabarbara & Sergio Gavila, 2009. "What explains the low profitability of Chinese banks?," Working Papers 0909, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  2. John Thornton, 1996. "Cointegration, error correction, and the demand for money in Mexico," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 132(4), pages 690-699, December.
  3. Hoffman, Dennis L & Rasche, Robert H, 1991. "Long-Run Income and Interest Elasticities of Money Demand in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(4), pages 665-74, November.
  4. Eswar Prasad & Raghuram Rajan, 2006. "Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm," IMF Policy Discussion Papers 06/03, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Chen, Baizhu, 1997. "Long-Run Money Demand and Inflation in China," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 609-617, July.
  6. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, 1996. "The black market exchange rate and demand for money in Iran," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 171-176.
  7. Eric Zivot & Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 944, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  8. Dan Ben-David & Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1998. "Unit Roots, Postwar Slowdowns and Long-Run Growth: Evidence from Two Structural Breaks," NBER Working Papers 6397, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Qin, Duo & Quising, Pilipinas & He, Xinhua & Liu, Shiguo, 2005. "Modeling monetary transmission and policy in China," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 157-175, March.
  10. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
  11. Neil R. Ericsson, 1998. "Empirical modeling of money demand," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 295-315.
  12. Hasan, Iftekhar & Wachtel, Paul & Zhou, Mingming, 2009. "Institutional development, financial deepening and economic growth: Evidence from China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 157-170, January.
  13. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
  14. Lawrence J. Lau & Yingyi Qian & Gerard Roland, 1997. "Reform without Losers: An Interpretation of China's Dual-Track Approach to Transition," Working Papers 97048, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  15. Choudhry, Taufiq, 1996. "Real stock prices and the long-run money demand function: evidence from Canada and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-17, February.
  16. Ferri, Giovanni, 2009. "Are New Tigers supplanting Old Mammoths in China's banking system? Evidence from a sample of city commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 131-140, January.
  17. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Yongqing Wang, 2007. "How Stable Is The Demand For Money In China?," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 32(1), pages 21-33, June.
  18. Chang, Yoosoon & Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo, 2003. "Electricity Demand Analysis Using Cointegration and Error-Correction Models with Time Varying Parameters: The Mexican Case," Working Papers 2003-08, Rice University, Department of Economics.
  19. Park, Joon Y, 1992. "Canonical Cointegrating Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 119-43, January.
  20. Samuel Reynard, 2004. "Financial Market Participation and the Apparent Instability of Money Demand," Working Papers 2004-01, Swiss National Bank.
  21. Lin, Xiaochi & Zhang, Yi, 2009. "Bank ownership reform and bank performance in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 20-29, January.
  22. Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Mohd, Siti Hamizah & Mansur M. Masih, A., 2009. "The stability of money demand in China: Evidence from the ARDL model," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 231-244, September.
  23. Hansen, Bruce E, 1992. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 321-35, July.
  24. Hafer, R.W. & Jansen, D.W., 1990. "The Demand For Money In The United States: Evidence From Cointegration Tests," Papers 9010, Erasmus University of Rotterdam - Institute for Economic Research.
  25. Qin, Duo, 1994. "Money demand in China: The effect of economic reform," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 253-271.
  26. Koivu, Tuuli, 2009. "Has the Chinese economy become more sensitive to interest rates? Studying credit demand in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 455-470, September.
  27. Ge Wu, 2009. "Broad Money Demand and Asset Substitution in China," IMF Working Papers 09/131, International Monetary Fund.
  28. Johansen, S., 1991. "Testing Weak Exogeneity and the Order of Cointegration in UK Money Demand Data," Papers 78, Helsinki - Department of Economics.
  29. Berger, Allen N. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Zhou, Mingming, 2009. "Bank ownership and efficiency in China: What will happen in the world's largest nation?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 113-130, January.
  30. Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Mohd, Siti Hamizah & Yol, Marial Awou, 2009. "Stock prices and demand for money in China: New evidence," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 171-187, February.
  31. Park, Joon Y. & Hahn, Sang B., 1999. "Cointegrating Regressions With Time Varying Coefficients," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(05), pages 664-703, October.
  32. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1988. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 877R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 1989.
  33. Marcos Chamon & Eswar Prasad, 2008. "Why are Saving Rates of Urban Households in China Rising?," IMF Working Papers 08/145, International Monetary Fund.
  34. McNown, Robert & Wallace, Myles S., 1992. "Cointegration tests of a long-run relation between money demand and the effective exchange rate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 107-114, February.
  35. Smyth, Russell & Inder, Brett, 2004. "Is Chinese provincial real GDP per capita nonstationary?: Evidence from multiple trend break unit root tests," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-24.
  36. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  37. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Shabsigh, Ghiath, 1996. "The demand for money in Japan: Evidence from cointegration analysis," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-10, March.
  38. Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah, 2001. "Stock prices and long-run demand for money: evidence from Malaysia," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 389-407.
  39. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
  40. Park, Sung Y. & Zhao, Guochang, 2010. "An estimation of U.S. gasoline demand: A smooth time-varying cointegration approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 110-120, January.
  41. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
  42. Yi, Gang, 1993. " Towards Estimating the Demand for Money in China," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 243-70.
  43. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1992. "Estimation and Testing of Cointegrated Systems by an Autoregressive Approximation," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 1-27, March.
  44. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, 2001. "How stable is M2 money demand function in Japan?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 455-461, December.
  45. Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
  46. Subramanian S. Sriram, 2001. "A Survey of Recent Empirical Money Demand Studies," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(3), pages 3.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:chieco:v:22:y:2011:i:3:p:330-343. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.