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Private Label Expansion and Supermarket Milk Prices

  • Bonanno Alessandro

    (University of Connecticut-Storrs, USA)

  • Lopez Rigoberto A.

    (University of Connecticut-Storrs, USA)

This article investigates the impacts of private labels (PLs) on fluid milk prices and price differentials using 2,759 supermarket-level observations from 10 cities. Non-parametric results reveal that although PL milk prices decrease as PL milk shares expand, eventually the effect is to increase the prices of manufacturers brands as well as the price gap between private labels and manufacturers brands. Econometric results further reveal that supermarkets exert some degree of price discrimination through controlling the brands of milk sold.

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Article provided by De Gruyter in its journal Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 3 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 1-18

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Handle: RePEc:bpj:bjafio:v:3:y:2005:i:1:n:2
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  1. Connor, John M. & Peterson, Everett B., 1991. "Market-Structure Determinants Of National Brand-Private Label Price Differences Of Manufactured Food Products," Working Papers 116099, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  2. William P. Putsis Jr. & Ronald W. Cotterill, 2000. "Share, Price and Category Expenditure-- Geographic Market Effects and Private Labels," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 050, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  3. Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2007. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt6gz1t778, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  4. Ronald W. Cotterill & Tirtha Pratim Dhar, 2003. "Oligopoly Pricing with Differentiated Products: The Boston Fluid Milk Market Channel," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 074, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  5. G. Galizzi & L. Venturini & S. Boccaletti, 1997. "Vertical relationships and dual branding strategies in the Italian food industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(2), pages 185-195.
  6. Ward, Michael B. & Shimshack, Jay P. & Perloff, Jeffrey M. & Harris, J. Michael, 2002. "Effects of the private-label invasion in food industries," MPRA Paper 22186, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl & Sorgard, Lars, 2007. "Private labels, price rivalry, and public policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 403-424, February.
  8. Bontemps Christophe & Orozco Valerie & Réquillart Vincent & Trevisiol Audrey, 2005. "Price Effects of Private Label Development," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-18, February.
  9. Ronald Cotterill & William Putsis, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior for Private Labels and National Brands," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 17(1), pages 17-39, August.
  10. Mills, David E, 1999. "Private Labels and Manufacturer Counterstrategies," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 125-45, June.
  11. Robert Barsky & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2001. "What Can the Price Gap between Branded and Private Label Products Tell Us about Markups?," NBER Working Papers 8426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2003. "Retail Oligopoly Power And Fluid Milk Prices In Boston," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22107, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  13. Bergès-Sennou Fabian & Bontems Philippe & Réquillart Vincent, 2004. "Economics of Private Labels: A Survey of Literature," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, February.
  14. Vickers, John & Waterson, Michael, 1991. "Vertical Relationships: An Introduction," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(5), pages 445-50, September.
  15. Bontems, Philippe & Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette & Requillart, Vincent, 1999. "Strategic Effects of Private Labels," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 147-65, June.
  16. Connor, John M, 1994. "North America as Precursor of Changes in Western European Food-Purchasing Patterns," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 21(2), pages 155-73.
  17. Shepard, Andrea, 1991. "Price Discrimination and Retail Configuration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(1), pages 30-53, February.
  18. Adonis Yatchew, 1998. "Nonparametric Regression Techniques in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 669-721, June.
  19. Katz, Michael L., 1989. "Vertical contractual relations," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 655-721 Elsevier.
  20. Parker, Philip & Kim, Namwoon, 1997. "National brands versus private labels: An empirical study of competition, advertising and collusion," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 220-235, June.
  21. Mills, David E, 1995. "Why Retailers Sell Private Labels," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 509-28, Fall.
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