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The impact of remittances on rural poverty and inequality in China

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  • Zhu, Nong
  • Luo, Xubei

Abstract

Large numbers of agricultural labor moved from the countryside to cities after the economic reforms in China. Migration and remittances play an important role in transforming the structure of rural household income. This paper examines the impact of rural-to-urban migration on rural poverty and inequality in the case of Hubei province using the data of a 2002 household survey. Since remittances are a potential substitute for farm income, the paper presents counterfactual scenarios of what rural income, poverty, and inequality would have been in the absence of migration. The results show that, by providing alternatives to households with lower marginal labor productivity in agriculture, migration leads to an increase in rural income. In contrast to many studies that suggest the increasing share of non-farm income in total income widens inequality, this paper offers support for the hypothesis that migration tends to have egalitarian effects on rural income for three reasons: (i) migration is rational self-selection - farmers with higher agricultural productivities choose to remain in local agricultural production while those with higher expected return in urban non-farm sectors migrate; (ii) poorer households facing binding constraints of land shortage are more likely to migrate; and (iii) the poorest poor benefit disproportionately from remittances.

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  • Zhu, Nong & Luo, Xubei, 2008. "The impact of remittances on rural poverty and inequality in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4637, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4637
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    Cited by:

    1. Fang, Cai & Yang, Du & Meiyan, Wang, 2009. "Migration and Labor Mobility in China," MPRA Paper 19187, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Chang, Hongqin & Dong, Xiao-yuan & MacPhail, Fiona, 2011. "Labor Migration and Time Use Patterns of the Left-behind Children and Elderly in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2199-2210.
    3. Ha, Wei & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen, 2009. "Internal Migration and Income Inequality in China: Evidence from Village Panel Data," MPRA Paper 16896, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Ibrahim, M.K. & Srinivasan, C.S., 2014. "Does Off-farm Income Alleviate Poverty and Income Inequality? Evidence from Rural Nigeria," 88th Annual Conference, April 9-11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France 170509, Agricultural Economics Society.

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    Keywords

    Rural Poverty Reduction; Population Policies; Access to Finance; Inequality;

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