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Petit précis de politique budgétaire par tous les temps: Les multiplicateurs budgétaires au cours du cycle

Author

Listed:
  • Jérôme Creel

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

  • Eric Heyer

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

  • Mathieu Plane

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Abstract

La crise économique et financière a remis au goût du jour les politiques budgétaires keynésiennes. Si celles-ci n’ont pas permis d’éviter une récession sévère en 2009, elles ont pu néanmoins stopper l’hémorragie de la dépression. Même si l’incertitude concernant la reprise est grande, l’heure est désormais dans la plupart des pays à la consolidation budgétaire. Plusieurs questions se posent alors. La première est celle de l’efficacité des politiques budgétaires que l’on évalue à partir de la mesure des multiplicateurs. Dans la première partie, nous passons en revue les différentes évaluations des multiplicateurs budgétaires. L’impact sur l’activité des politiques budgétaires diffèrent, d’une part, en fonction des instruments utilisés (dépenses publiques, baisse d’impôts...), des horizons de prévision, de la taille des pays et de leur structure productive et fiscale. Au-delà de la mesure des multiplicateurs keynésiens à court, moyen et long terme en fonction des différents instruments budgétaires, l’apport principal de cet article est d’introduire l’effet du cycle économique dans les chocs budgétaires. En intégrant dans notre modèle macroéconomique (emod.fr) une relation entre le taux chômage structurel et le taux de chômage effectif différente selon le cycle économique, l’impact de toute politique économique variera selon la position de l’économie dans le cycle. La dernière question qui découle des précédentes est donc : les politiques de consolidation budgétaire sont-elles adaptées à la situation conjoncturelle actuelle ? La réponse est non car les économies avancées se situent actuellement toutes en bas ce cycle. Dans ce contexte, les multiplicateurs budgétaires sont élevés et les effets récessifs des politiques d’austérité seront forts.

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  • Jérôme Creel & Eric Heyer & Mathieu Plane, 2011. "Petit précis de politique budgétaire par tous les temps: Les multiplicateurs budgétaires au cours du cycle," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5l6uh8ogmqi, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/5l6uh8ogmqildh09h61k5ih10
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Modèle macroéconomique; Cycle économique; Chômage structurel; Politique budgétaire; Multiplicateur;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian; Modern Monetary Theory
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles

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