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Le chômage structurel à 5 % en France ?

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  • Éric Heyer
  • Xavier Timbeau

Abstract

Using a standard state-space model with a reduced Phillips equation, we propose a model with better dynamics and explicit separation of NAIRU and structural unemployment. This model requires the use of a Kalman filter. Under reasonable assumptions on the innovations to the NAIRU equation, our NAIRU estimates are close to what is usual for France, while the value of the structural rate of unemployment is between 5 and 6%. This reconciles the measure of structural unemployment with the intuition of « full employment » unemployment rate. Some determinants of the structural unemployment are empirically validated. The inflation ? unemployment dilemma does not stand in the long run ; real interest rates and minimum wage positively influence U* ; productivity plays negatively ; replacement rate and the fiscal-social wedge have no impact on U*.

Suggested Citation

  • Éric Heyer & Xavier Timbeau, 2002. "Le chômage structurel à 5 % en France ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 80(1), pages 115-151.
  • Handle: RePEc:cai:reofsp:reof_080_0115
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mankiw, N Gregory, 2001. "The Inexorable and Mysterious Tradeoff between Inflation and Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(471), pages 45-61, May.
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    4. Yannick L’Horty & Christophe Rault, 2003. "Les causes du chômage en France. Une ré-estimation du modèle ws-ps," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 54(2), pages 271-294.
    5. Manning, Alan, 1993. "Wage Bargaining and the Phillips Curve: The Identification and Specification of Aggregate Wage Equations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 98-118, January.
    6. Yannick L'Horty & Florence Thibault, 1998. "Le chômage d'équilibre, de quoi parlons-nous ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 13(4), pages 51-81.
    7. Henri Sterdyniak & Hervé Le Bihan, 1998. "Courbe de Phillips et modèle WS-PS. Quelques réflexions," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 49(3), pages 937-948.
    8. Irac, D., 2000. "Estimation of a Time Varying NAIRU for France," Working papers 75, Banque de France.
    9. Lawrence F. Katz & Olivier Blanchard, 1999. "Wage Dynamics: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 69-74, May.
    10. Eric Heyer & Hervé Le Bihan & Frédéric Lerais, 2000. "Relation de Phillips, boucle prix-salaire : une estimation par la méthode de Johansen," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 146(5), pages 43-60.
    11. Robert G. King & James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1995. "Temporal instability of the unemployment-inflation relationship," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 2-12.
    12. Douglas O. Staiger & James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1997. "How Precise Are Estimates of the Natural Rate of Unemployment?," NBER Chapters,in: Reducing Inflation: Motivation and Strategy, pages 195-246 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Sneessens, Henri R., 1992. "Contraintes de débouchés, capacités de production et chômage dans un modèle macroéconomique avec concurrence imparfaite," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 68(1), pages 140-174, mars et j.
    14. Stuart E. Weiner, 1993. "New estimates of the natural rate of unemployment," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 53-69.
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    Cited by:

    1. Éric Heyer & Frédéric Reynès & Henri Sterdyniak, 2005. "Variables observables et inobservables dans la théorie du taux de chômage d'équilibre. Une comparaison France/États-Unis," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(3), pages 593-603.
    2. Éric Heyer & Mathieu Plane & Xavier Timbeau, 2010. "Quelle dette publique à l'horizon 2030 en France ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(1), pages 5-33.
    3. Eric Heyer & Frédéric Reynés & Henri Sterdyniak, 2004. "Observable and unobservable variables in the theory of the equilibrium rate of unemployment, a comparison between France and the United States," Sciences Po publications n°2004-06, Sciences Po.
    4. Eric Heyer, 2010. "Efficacité de la politique économique et position dans le cycle: le cas de la défiscalisation des heures supplémentaires en France," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2010-26, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    5. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/5l6uh8ogmqildh09h61ql8ubo is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Gian Luigi Mazzi & Frédéric Reynès & Matthieu Lemoine & Paola Veroni, 2008. "Real Time Estimation of Potential Output and Output Gap for the Euro-Area : Comparing Production Function with Unobserved Components and SVAR Approaches," Working Papers hal-01027422, HAL.
    7. Eric Heyer, 2011. "The effectiveness of economic policy and position in the cycle: the case of tax reductions on overtime in France," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(2), pages 364-379.
    8. El Alaoui, Aicha & Ezzahidi, Elhadj & Eladnani, Mohamed Jellal, 2013. "Etimating NAIRU: the Morocco case," MPRA Paper 56815, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2014.
    9. Gerard Cornilleau & Jerome Creel, 2014. "Financialisation and the Financial and Economic Crises: The Case of France," FESSUD studies fstudy22, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    10. Jérôme Creel & Éric Heyer & Mathieu Plane, 2011. "Petit précis de politique budgétaire par tous les temps. Les multiplicateurs budgétaires au cours du cycle," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(1), pages 61-88.
    11. Baghli, M. & Brunhes-Lesage, V. & De bandt, O. & Fraisse, H. & Villetelle, J-P., 2004. "MASCOTTE: Model for AnalySing and foreCasting shOrT TErm developments," Working papers 106, Banque de France.
    12. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/2005 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/1904 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Heyer, Eric & Reynes, Frederic & Sterdyniak, Henri, 2007. "Structural and reduced approaches of the equilibrium rate of unemployment, a comparison between France and the United States," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 42-65, January.

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