IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/spo/wpmain/infohdl2441-2241.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Domestic trade and market size in late eighteenth century France

Author

Listed:
  • Guillaume Daudin

Abstract

This paper checks if differences in market size can explain the retardation of the Industrial Revolution in France compared to Britain. It uses an exceptional source on French domestic trade in a variety of goods in the late eighteenth century: the Tableaux du Maximum. The first part presents this source and the data. The second part checks if the data are plausible using a logit theoretical gravity equation. The third part uses the results of this gravity equation to compute the expected markets size of specific supply centres. For all types of high value-to-weight goods, some French supply centres reached 25 million people or more. For all types of textile groups, some French supply centres reached 20 million people or more. Even taking into account differences in real, nominal and disposable income per capita, these supply centres had access to domestic markets that were at least as large as the whole of Britain. Differences in the size of foreign markets were too small to reverse that result.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillaume Daudin, 2007. "Domestic trade and market size in late eighteenth century France," Sciences Po publications n°2007-35, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/2241
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://spire.sciencespo.fr/hdl:/2441/2241/resources/2domestictradeandmarketsizessendnote.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ejrnaes, Mette & Persson, Karl Gunnar, 2000. "Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903: A Threshold Error Correction Approach to the Law of One Price," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 149-173, April.
    2. Milanovic, Branko & Lindert, Peter & Williamson, Jeffrey, 2007. "Measuring Ancient Inequality," MPRA Paper 5388, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    4. Lindert, Peter H. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 1982. "Revising England's social tables 1688-1812," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 385-408, October.
    5. Paul A. David & Gavin Wright, 1999. "Early Twentieth Century Productivity Growth Dynamics: An Inquiry into the Economic History of "Our Ignorance"," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _033, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    6. Nicholas Dimsdale & N.H. Horsewood & A. van Riel, 2004. "Unemployment and Real Wages in Weimar Germany," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _056, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    7. Paul A. David & Gavin Wright, "undated". "General Purpose Technologies and Surges in Productivity: Historical Reflections on the Future of the ICT Revolution," Working Papers 99026, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
    8. Federico Varese, 2005. "How Mafias Migrate: The Case of the `Ndrangheta in Northern Italy," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _059, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    9. Offer, Avner, 2003. "Why has the Public Sector Grown so Large in Market Societies?: The Political Economy of Prudence in the UK, c.1870-2000," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199514359.
    10. Jean-Louis Peaucelle, 2006. "Adam Smith's use of multiple references for his pin making example," The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 489-512.
    11. Jacob Weisdorf & Paul Sharp, 2009. "From preventive to permissive checks: the changing nature of the Malthusian relationship between nuptiality and the price of provisions in the nineteenth century," Cliometrica, Journal of Historical Economics and Econometric History, Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC), vol. 3(1), pages 55-70, January.
    12. Federico Varese & Meir Yaish, 1998. "Altruism:The Importance of Being Asked. The Rescue of Jews in Nazi Europe," Economics Series Working Papers 1998-W24, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    13. Morrisson, Christian & Snyder, Wayne, 2000. "The income inequality of France in historical perspective," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(01), pages 59-83, April.
    14. Liam Brunt, 1995. "Turning Water into Wine New Methods of Calculating Farm Output and New Insights into Rising Crop Yields during the Agricultural Revolution," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _002, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    15. Valpy Fitzgerald & Pablo Astorga & Ame R. Bergés, 2003. "Productivity Growth in Latin America during the Twentieth Century," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _052, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    16. Liam Brunt, 2000. "Where theres Muck theres Brass The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-W35, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    17. Regina Grafe & M.A. Irigoin, 2006. "Bargaining for Absolutism: A Spanish Path to Nation State and Empire Building," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _065, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    18. Peter Temin, 2001. "A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _039, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    19. Richard Baldwin & Daria Taglioni, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," NBER Working Papers 12516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Galor, Oded, 2005. "From Stagnation to Growth: Unified Growth Theory," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 171-293 Elsevier.
    21. Paul David, 1997. "Path Dependence and the Quest for Historical Economics: One More chorus of Ballad of QWERTY," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _020, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    22. Redding, Stephen & Venables, Anthony J., 2004. "Economic geography and international inequality," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82, January.
    23. Desmet, Klaus & Parente, Stephen, 2006. "Bigger is Better: Market Size, Demand Elasticity and Resistance to Technology Adoption," CEPR Discussion Papers 5825, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    24. Antonia Taddei, 1999. "London Clubs in the Late Nineteenth Century," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _028, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    25. Tim Leunig, 1998. "New Answers to Old Questions: Transport Costs and the Slow Adoption of Ring Spinning in Lancashire," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _022, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    26. Teresa da Silva Lopes, 2004. "Evolution of Corporate Governance in Global Industries: The Case of Multinationals in Alcoholic Beverages," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _053, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    27. Alexandre Debs, 2003. "The Source of Walras`s Idealist Bias: A Review of Koppl`s Solution to the Walras Paradox," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _049, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    28. Tim Leunig, 1998. "New Answers to Old Questions: Transport Costs and the Slow Adoption of Ring Spinning in Lancashire," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _022, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    29. Oliver Grant, 2002. "Does Industrialisation Push up Inequality? New Evidence on the Kuznets Curve from Nineteenth-Century Prussian Tax Statistics," Economics Series Working Papers 2002-W48, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    30. Paul David & Gavin Wright, 1999. "Early Twentieth Century Productivity Growth Dynamics: An Inquiry into the Economic History of Our Ignorance," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _033, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    31. Paul David, 2001. "From Keeping Natures Secrets to the Institutionalization of Open Science," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W23, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    32. Martin West, 2000. "State Intervention in English Education, 1833-1891: A Public Goods and Agency Approach," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _037, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    33. J.Humphries & T. Leunig, 2007. "Cities, Market Integration and Going to Sea: Stunting and the standard of living in early nineteenth-century England and Wales," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _066, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    34. Regina Grafe & Camilla Brautaset, 2006. "The Quiet Transport Revolution: Returns to Scale, Scope and Network Density in Norway`s Nineteenth-Century Sailing Fleet," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _062, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    35. Paul David, 2001. "From Keeping Natures Secrets to the Institutionalization of Open Science," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _023, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    36. Avner Offer, 2000. "Economic Welfare Measurements and Human Well-Being, [revised version, March 2000]," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _034, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    37. Nicholas Dimsdale & N.H. Horsewood, 2004. "Unemployment and Real Wages in Weimar Germany," Economics Series Working Papers 2004-W56, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    38. Ame R. Bergés & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2004. "The Standard of Living in Latin America During the Twentieth Century," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _054, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    39. James Foreman Peck, 1996. "Technological Lock-in and the Power Source for the Motor Car," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _007, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    40. Paul A. David, 1997. "Path Dependence and the Quest for Historical Economics: One More chorus of Ballad of QWERTY," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _020, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    41. Zweimuller, Josef, 2000. "Schumpeterian Entrepreneurs Meet Engel's Law: The Impact of Inequality on Innovation-Driven Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 185-206, June.
    42. Chevet, Jean-Michel & Saint-Amour, Pascal, 1992. "L'intégration des marchés du blé en France aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles," Cahiers d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales (CESR), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), vol. 22.
    43. Martin West, 2000. "State Intervention in English Education, 1833-1891: A Public Goods and Agency Approach," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-W37, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    44. Walter  Eltis, 2001. "Lord Overstone and the Establishment of British Nineteenth-Century Monetary Orthodoxy," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _042, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    45. Tony Atkinson, 2002. "Top Incomes in the United Kingdom Over the Twentieth Century," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _043, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    46. Carol H. Shiue & Wolfgang Keller, 2007. "Markets in China and Europe on the Eve of the Industrial Revolution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(4), pages 1189-1216, September.
    47. Wayne Graham, 1996. "The Randlord's Bubble 1894-6: South African Gold Mines and Stock Market Manipulation," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _010, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    48. Michael Biggs, 2001. "Positive Feedback in Collective Mobilization: The American Strike Wave of 1886," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _040, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    49. Pablo Astorga, Ame R. Berges and Valpy FitzGerald, "undated". "The Standard of Living in Latin America During the Twentieth Century," QEH Working Papers qehwps103, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    50. Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1989. "Income Distribution, Market Size, and Industrialization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(3), pages 537-564.
    51. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Why Some Firms Export," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 561-569, May.
    52. Tan, Elaine S., 2002. "'The bull is half the herd': property rights and enclosures in England, 1750-1850," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 470-489, October.
    53. Pablo Astorga & Ame R. Bergés & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2003. "Productivity Growth in Latin America during the Twentieth Century," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _052, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    54. David Stead, 1998. "An Arduous and Unprofitable Undertaking: The Enclosure of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire," Economics Series Working Papers 1998-W26, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    55. Wolf, Nikolaus, 2005. "Path dependent border effects: the case of Poland's reunification (1918-1939)," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 414-438, July.
    56. David M. Engstrom, 1997. "The Economic Determinants of Ethnic Segregation in Post-War Britain," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _012, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    57. Jane Humphries & Tim Leunig, 2007. "Cities, Market Integration and Going to Sea: Stunting and the Standard of Living in Early Nineteenth-Century England and Wales," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _066, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    58. Federico Varese & Meir Yaish, 1998. "Altruism:The Importance of Being Asked. The Rescue of Jews in Nazi Europe," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _024, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    59. Paul A. David & Gavin Wright, "undated". "General Purpose Technologies and Surges in Productivity: Historical Reflections on the Future of the ICT Revolution," Working Papers 99026, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
    60. Pablo Astorga & Ame R. Berges & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2005. "The standard of living in Latin America during the twentieth century -super-1," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 58(4), pages 765-796, November.
    61. Paul A. David, 2001. "From Keeping 'Nature's Secrets' to the Institutionalization of 'Open Science'," Working Papers 01006, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
    62. Walter Eltis, 2001. "Lord Overstone and the Establishment of British Nineteenth-Century Monetary Orthodoxy," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W42, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    63. Thierry Mayer & Keith Head, 2002. "Illusory Border Effects: Distance Mismeasurement Inflates Estimates of Home Bias in Trade," Working Papers 2002-01, CEPII research center.
    64. Liam Brunt, 1999. "An Arbitrage Model in Crop Rotation in 18th Century England," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _032, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    65. James Foreman-Peck,, 1996. "'Technological Lock-in' and the Power Source for the Motor Car," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _007, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    66. Avner Offer, 2000. "Economic Welfare Measurements and Human Well-Being, [revised version, March 2000]," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-W34, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    67. Alasdair  Crockett, 2000. "Variations in Churchgoing Rates in England in 1851: Supply-side Deficiency or Demand-led Decline?," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _036, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    68. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/699 is not listed on IDEAS
    69. Crafts, N. F. R., 1995. "Exogenous or Endogenous Growth? The Industrial Revolution Reconsidered," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 55(04), pages 745-772, December.
    70. Michael Kremer, 1993. "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 681-716.
    71. David Stead, 1998. "An Arduous and Unprofitable Undertaking: The Enclosure of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _026, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    72. Guillaume Daudin, 2005. "Commerce et prospérité : la France au XVIIIe siècle," Sciences Po publications 19, Sciences Po.
    73. Liam Brunt, 2000. "Where theres Muck theres Brass The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _035, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    74. Antonia Taddei, 1999. "London Clubs in the Late Nineteenth Century," Economics Series Working Papers 1999-W28, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    75. Teresa da Silva Lopes, 2004. "Evolution of Corporate Governance in Global Industries: The Case of Multinationals in Alcoholic Beverages," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _053, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    76. Oliver Grant, 2002. "Does Industrialisation Push up Inequality? New Evidence on the Kuznets Curve from Nineteenth-Century Prussian Tax Statistics," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _048, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    77. M.A. Irigoin & R. Grafe, 2006. "Bargaining for Absolutism: A Spanish Path to Nation State and Empire Building," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _065, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    78. Ame Bergés & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2004. "The Standard of Living in Latin America During the Twentieth Century," Economics Series Working Papers 2004-W54, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    79. David M. Engstrom, 1997. "The Economic Determinants of Ethnic Segregation in Post-War Britain," Economics Series Working Papers 1997-W12, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    80. Liam Brunt, 1997. "Nature or Nurture? Explaining English Wheat Yields in the Agricultural Revolution," Economics Series Working Papers 1997-W19, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    81. Liam Brunt, 1999. "An Arbitrage Model in Crop Rotation in 18th Century England," Economics Series Working Papers 1999-W32, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    82. Liam Brunt, 1997. "Nature or Nurture? Explaining English Wheat Yields in the Agricultural Revolution," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _019, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    83. Liam Brunt, 1999. "Estimating English Wheat Production in the Industrial Revolution," Economics Series Working Papers 1999-W29, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    84. Liam Brunt, 1995. "Turning Water into Wine New Methods of Calculating Farm Output and New Insights into Rising Crop Yields during the Agricultural Revolution," Economics Series Working Papers 1995-W02, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    85. J. Veverka, 1963. "The Growth Of Government Expenditure In The United Kingdom Since 1790," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 10(1), pages 111-127, February.
    86. Peter Temin, 2001. "A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W39, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    87. Federico Varese, 2005. "How Mafias Migrate: The Case of the `Ndrangheta in Northern Italy," Economics Series Working Papers 2005-W59, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    88. Liam Brunt, 1999. "Estimating English Wheat Production in the Industrial Revolution," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _029, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    89. repec:bla:presci:v:21:y:1968:i:1:p:205-227 is not listed on IDEAS
    90. Michael Biggs, 2001. "Positive Feedback in Collective Mobilization: The American Strike Wave of 1886," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W40, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    91. Tony Atkinson, 2002. "Top Incomes in the United Kingdom Over the Twentieth Century," Economics Series Working Papers 2002-W43, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    92. Alexandre Debs, 2003. "The Source of Walras`s Idealist Bias: A Review of Koppl`s Solution to the Walras Paradox," Economics Series Working Papers 2003-W49, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    93. Camilla Brautaset & Regina Grafe, 2006. "The Quiet Transport Revolution: Returns to scale, scope and network density in Norway's nineteenth-century sailing fleet," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _062, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    94. Alasdair Crockett, 2000. "Variations in Churchgoing Rates in England in 1851: Supply-side Deficiency or Demand-led Decline?," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-W36, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mara P. Squicciarini & Nico Voigtländer, 2015. "Human Capital and Industrialization: Evidence from the Age of Enlightenment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 130(4), pages 1825-1883.
    2. Franck, Raphaël & Galor, Oded, 2015. "Is Industrialization Conducive to Long-Run Prosperity?," IZA Discussion Papers 9158, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Paul David & S. Ryan Johansson & Andrea Pozzi, 2010. "The Demography of an Early Mortality Transition: Life Expectancy, Survival and Mortality Rates for Britain's Royals, 1500-1799," Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers _083, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    4. Réka Juhász, 2014. "Temporary Protection and Technology Adoption: Evidence from the Napoleonic Blockade," CEP Discussion Papers dp1322, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    5. Chilosi, David & Murphy, Tommy E. & Studer, Roman & Tunçer, A. Coşkun, 2013. "Europe's many integrations: Geography and grain markets, 1620–1913," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 46-68.
    6. Raphaël Franck & Stelios Michalopoulos, 2017. "Emigration during the French Revolution: Consequences in the Short and Longue Durée," NBER Working Papers 23936, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Raphaël Franck & Oded Galor, 2017. "Flowers of Evil? Industrial Development and Long-Run Prosperity," NBER Working Papers 23701, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Juhász, Réka, 2014. "Temporary protection and technology adoption: evidence from the Napoleonic blockade," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60697, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Daniel M. Bernhofen & Markus Eberhardt & Jianan Li & Stephen Morgan, 2015. "Assessing Market (Dis)Integration in Early Modern China and Europe," CESifo Working Paper Series 5580, CESifo Group Munich.
    10. Paul A. David & S. Ryan Johansson & Andrea Pozzi, 2010. "The Demography of an Early Mortality Transition: Life Expectancy, Survival and Mortality Rates for Britain's Royals, 1500-1799," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _083, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    11. McCloskey, Deirdre Nansen, 2009. "Foreign Trade Was Not an Engine of Growth," MPRA Paper 19723, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. repec:aea:aecrev:v:108:y:2018:i:11:p:3339-76 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Franck, Raphaël & Galor, Oded, 2016. "Technology-Skill Complementarity in the Early Phase of Industrialization," IZA Discussion Papers 9758, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Franck, Raphaël & Galor, Oded, 2018. "Flowers of Evil? Industrialization and Long Run Development," IZA Discussion Papers 11681, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Johnson, Noel, 2015. "Taxes, National Identity, and Nation Building: Evidence from France," MPRA Paper 63598, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Veselov, D. & Yarkin, A., 2016. "Wealth Distribution and Political Conflict in the Model of Transition from Stagnation to Growth," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 30-60.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • N73 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Europe: Pre-1913

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/2241. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Spire @ Sciences Po Library). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ecspofr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.