IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/sgm/fmuwwp/42016.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Macroprudential policy instruments and procyclicality of loan-loss provisions – cross-country evidence

Author

Listed:
  • Malgorzata Olszak

    (Department of Banking and Money Markets, Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw, Poland)

  • Iwona Kowalska

    (Department of Mathematics and Statistical Methods, Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw, Poland)

  • Sylwia Roszkowska

    (Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, University of £ódŸ, National Bank of Poland, Poland)

Abstract

We analyze the effectiveness of various macroprudential policy instruments in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions (LLPs) using individual bank information from over 65 countries and applying the two-step GMM Blundell-Bond (1998) approach with robust standard errors. Our research identifies several new facts. Firstly, borrower restrictions are definitely more effective in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions than other macroprudential policy instruments. This effect is supported in both unconsolidated and consolidated data and is robust to several robustness checks. Secondly, dynamic provisions, large exposure concentration limits and taxes on specific assets are effective in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions. And finally, we find that both loan-to-value caps and debt-to-income ratios, are especially effective in reducing the procyclicality of LLP of large banks. Off-balance-sheet restrictions, concentration limits and taxes are also effective in reducing the procyclicality of LLP of large banks. Dynamic provisions reduce the procyclicality of LLP independently of bank size.

Suggested Citation

  • Malgorzata Olszak & Iwona Kowalska & Sylwia Roszkowska, 2016. "Macroprudential policy instruments and procyclicality of loan-loss provisions – cross-country evidence," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 42016, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:sgm:fmuwwp:42016
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.wz.uw.edu.pl/portaleFiles/5630-Faculty%20of%20M/WP/WPS22016_olszak_roszkowska_kowalska_%281%29.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2016
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Claudio Borio, 2011. "Implementing the Macroprudential Approach to Financial Regulation and Supervision," Chapters, in: Christopher J. Green & Eric J. Pentecost & Tom Weyman-Jones (ed.), The Financial Crisis and the Regulation of Finance, chapter 7, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Kuttner, Kenneth N. & Shim, Ilhyock, 2016. "Can non-interest rate policies stabilize housing markets? Evidence from a panel of 57 economies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 31-44.
    3. Concetta Chiuri, Maria & Ferri, Giovanni & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2002. "The macroeconomic impact of bank capital requirements in emerging economies: Past evidence to assess the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 881-904, May.
    4. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Hooley, John & Korniyenko, Yevgeniya & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2014. "The international transmission of bank capital requirements: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 368-382.
    5. Diana Hancock & James A. Wilcox, 1994. "Bank Capital and the Credit Crunch: The Roles of Risk‐Weighted and Unweighted Capital Regulations," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 59-94, March.
    6. Jose M. Berrospide & Rochelle M. Edge, 2010. "The effects of bank capital on lending: What do we know, and what does it mean?," CAMA Working Papers 2010-26, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    7. Matjaž Volk & Polona Trefalt, 2014. "Access to Credit as a Growth Constraint," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 1(1), pages 29-39, May.
    8. Labonne, C. & Lamé, G., 2014. "Credit Growth and Bank Capital Requirements: Binding or Not?," Working papers 481, Banque de France.
    9. Giovanni Dell’ariccia & Deniz Igan & Luc Laeven, 2012. "Credit Booms and Lending Standards: Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44, pages 367-384, March.
    10. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S, 1997. "The International Transmission of Financial Shocks: The Case of Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 495-505, September.
    11. Bas B. Bakker & Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Luc Laeven & Jérôme Vandenbussche & Deniz O Igan & Hui Tong, 2012. "Policies for Macrofinancial Stability; How to Deal with Credit Booms," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 12/06, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Ben S. Bernanke & Cara S. Lown, 1991. "The Credit Crunch," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(2), pages 205-248.
    13. repec:wil:wileco:2013-20 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Carlson, Mark & Shan, Hui & Warusawitharana, Missaka, 2013. "Capital ratios and bank lending: A matched bank approach," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 663-687.
    15. Ms. Deniz O Igan & Mr. Heedon Kang, 2011. "Do Loan-To-Value and Debt-To-Income Limits Work? Evidence From Korea," IMF Working Papers 2011/297, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 1994. "The prudential regulation of banks," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9539, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    17. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    18. Eric S. Rosengren & Joe Peek, 2000. "Collateral Damage: Effects of the Japanese Bank Crisis on Real Activity in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 30-45, March.
    19. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric, 1995. "The Capital Crunch: Neither a Borrower nor a Lender Be," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 625-638, August.
    20. Del Giovane, Paolo & Eramo, Ginette & Nobili, Andrea, 2011. "Disentangling demand and supply in credit developments: A survey-based analysis for Italy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2719-2732, October.
    21. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric, 1995. "Bank regulation and the credit crunch," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 679-692, June.
    22. Claessens, Stijn & Ghosh, Swati R. & Mihet, Roxana, 2013. "Macro-prudential policies to mitigate financial system vulnerabilities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 153-185.
    23. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1994. "Bank Real Estate Lending and the New England Capital Crunch," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 33-58, March.
    24. Beatty, Anne & Liao, Scott, 2014. "Financial accounting in the banking industry: A review of the empirical literature," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 339-383.
    25. Crowe, Christopher & Dell’Ariccia, Giovanni & Igan, Deniz & Rabanal, Pau, 2013. "How to deal with real estate booms: Lessons from country experiences," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 300-319.
    26. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    27. Blaes, Barno, 2011. "Bank-related loan supply factors during the crisis: An analysis based on the German bank lending survey," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2011,31, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    28. Bridges, Jonathan & Gregory, David & Nielsen, Mette & Pezzini, Silvia & Radia, Amar & Spaltro, Marco, 2014. "The impact of capital requirements on bank lending," Bank of England working papers 486, Bank of England.
    29. Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2004. "Does bank capital affect lending behavior?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 436-457, October.
    30. Jose M. Berrospide & Rochelle M. Edge, 2010. "The Effects of Bank Capital on Lending: What Do We Know, and What Does It Mean?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 6(34), pages 1-50, December.
    31. Jose M. Berrospide & Rochelle M. Edge, 2010. "The effects of bank capital on lending: what do we know, and what does it mean?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-44, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    32. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937.
    33. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    34. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles & Hooley, John & Korniyenko , Yevgeniya & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2014. "The international transmission of bank capital requirements: evidence from the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 497, Bank of England.
    35. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Małgorzata Olszak & Sylwia Roszkowska & Iwona Kowalska, 2018. "The Joint Effect Of Borrower Targeted Macroprudential Instruments And Capital Regulations On Procyclicality Of Loan-Loss Provisions," Copernican Journal of Finance & Accounting, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 7(3), pages 29-53.
    2. Xing Zhang & Fengchao Li & Zhen Li & Yingying Xu, 2018. "Macroprudential Policy, Credit Cycle, and Bank Risk-Taking," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-18, October.
    3. Skała, Dorota, 2020. "Shareholder shocks and loan loss provisions in Central European banks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Malgorzata Olszak & Iwona Kowalska & Sylwia Roszkowska, 2016. "Do Macroprudential Policy Instruments Affect The Link Between Lending And Capital Ratio? – Cross-Country Evidence," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 22016, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    2. Malgorzata Olszak & Mateusz Pipien & Sylwia Roszkowska, 2016. "The Impact Of Capital Ratio On Lending Of Eu Banks – The Role Of Bank Specialization And Capitalization," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 11(1), pages 43-59, March.
    3. Malgorzata Olszak & Mateusz Pipien & Sylwia Roszkowska & Iwona Kowalska, 2014. "The effects of capital on bank lending in large EU banks – the role of procyclicality, income smoothing, regulations and supervision," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 52014, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    4. Malgorzata Olszak & Sylwia Roszkowska & Marcell Zoltán Végh, 2017. "Do Microprudential Regulations and Supervision Affect the Link Between Lending and Capital Ratio in Economic Downturns of Large Banks in the EU?," Problemy Zarzadzania, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 15(66), pages 11-36.
    5. Cappelletti, Giuseppe & Reghezza, Alessio & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Spaggiari, Martina, 2020. "Compositional effects of O-SII capital buffers and the role of monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2440, European Central Bank.
    6. Bert Loudis & Ben Ranish, 2019. "CECL and the Credit Cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-061, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    7. Nakashima, Kiyotaka & Takahashi, Koji, 2018. "The real effects of bank-driven termination of relationships: Evidence from loan-level matched data," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 46-65.
    8. Karmakar, Sudipto & Mok, Junghwan, 2015. "Bank capital and lending: An analysis of commercial banks in the United States," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 21-24.
    9. Malgorzata Olszak & Patrycja Chodnicka-Jaworska & Iwona Kowalska & Filip Œwita³a, 2017. "The effect of capital ratio on lending: Do loan-loss provisioning practices matter?," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 22017, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    10. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2016. "How does credit supply respond to monetary policy and bank minimum capital requirements?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 142-165.
    11. Małgorzata Olszak & Iwona Kowalska & Patrycja Chodnicka-Jaworska & Filip Świtała, 2020. "Do cyclicality of loan-loss provisions and income smoothing matter for the capital crunch – the case of commercial banks in Poland," Bank i Kredyt, Narodowy Bank Polski, vol. 51(4), pages 383-436.
    12. Malgorzata Olszak & Mateusz Pipien & Iwona Kowalska & Sylwia Roszkowska, 2015. "Do regulations and supervision shape the capital crunch effect of large banks in the EU?," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 32015, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    13. Labonne, C. & Lamé, G., 2014. "Credit Growth and Bank Capital Requirements: Binding or Not?," Working papers 481, Banque de France.
    14. Jean-Stéphane Mésonnier & Dalibor Stevanovic, 2012. "Bank Leverage Shocks and the Macroeconomy: a New Look in a Data-Rich Environment," CIRANO Working Papers 2012s-23, CIRANO.
    15. C. Labonne & G. Lamé, 2014. "Credit Growth and Capital Requirements: Binding or Not?," Documents de Travail de l'Insee - INSEE Working Papers g2014-07, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques.
    16. Hessou, Helyoth & Lai, Van Son, 2018. "Basel III capital buffers and Canadian credit unions lending: Impact of the credit cycle and the business cycle," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 23-39.
    17. Kim, Dohan & Sohn, Wook, 2017. "The effect of bank capital on lending: Does liquidity matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 95-107.
    18. Hans Degryse & Sanja Jakovljević & Steven Ongena, 2015. "A Review of Empirical Research on the Design and Impact of Regulation in the Banking Sector," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 423-443, December.
    19. Tölö, Eero & Virén, Matti, 2021. "How much do non-performing loans hinder loan growth in Europe?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    20. Helyoth Hessou & Van Son Lai, 2017. "Basel III Capital Buffers and Canadian Credit Unions Lending: Impact of The Credit Cycle and The Business Cycle," Working Papers 2017-009, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    macroprudential policy; loan-loss provisions; business cycle; procyclicality;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sgm:fmuwwp:42016. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/somuwpl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/somuwpl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.