The impact of capital requirements on bank lending
We estimate the effect of changes in microprudential regulatory capital requirements on bank capital ratios and bank lending. We do so by running panel regressions using a rich new data set, exploiting variation in individual bank capital requirements in the United Kingdom from 1990-2011. There are two key results. First, regulatory capital requirements affect the capital ratios held by banks – following an increase in capital requirements, banks gradually rebuild the buffers that they initially held over the regulatory minimum. Second, capital requirements affect lending with heterogeneous responses in different sectors of the economy – in the year following an increase in capital requirements, banks, on average, cut (in descending order based on point estimates) loan growth for commercial real estate, other corporates and household secured lending. The response of unsecured household lending is smaller and insignificant over the first year as a whole. Loan growth mostly recovers within three years. While estimated over a different policy regime and at the individual bank level, these results may contain some insights into how changing capital requirements might affect lending in a macroprudential regime. However, during the transition to higher global regulatory standards, the effects of changes in capital requirements may be different. For example, increasing capital requirements might augment rather than reduce lending for initially undercapitalised banks.
|Date of creation:||31 Jan 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris , Charles W & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2012.
"Does macropru leak? Evidence from a UK policy experiment,"
Bank of England working papers
445, Bank of England.
- Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2012. "Does Macro-Pru Leak? Evidence from a UK Policy Experiment," NBER Working Papers 17822, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2010:i:oct11 is not listed on IDEAS
- Rime, Bertrand, 2001. "Capital requirements and bank behaviour: Empirical evidence for Switzerland," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 789-805, April.
- Stolz, Stéphanie & Wedow, Michael, 2005. "Banks' regulatory capital buffer and the business cycle: evidence for German savings and cooperative banks," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2005,07, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Houston, Joel & James, Christopher & Marcus, David, 1997. "Capital market frictions and the role of internal capital markets in banking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 135-164, November.
- Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
- Den Haan, Wouter & Sumner, Steven & Yamashiro, Guy, 2004.
"Banks' Loan Portfolio and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4725, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- den Haan, Wouter J. & Sumner, Steven W. & Yamashiro, Guy M., 2007. "Bank loan portfolios and the monetary transmission mechanism," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 904-924, April.
- Button, Richard & Pezzini, Silvia & Rossiter, Neil, 2010. "Understanding the price of new lending to households," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 50(3), pages 172-182.
- Samuel G. Hanson & Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 2011. "A Macroprudential Approach to Financial Regulation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 3-28, Winter.
- Frank Heid & Daniel Porath & Stéphanie Stolz, 2003.
"Does Capital Regulation Matter for Bank Behavior? Evidence for German savings banks,"
Kiel Working Papers
1192, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Heid, Frank & Porath, Daniel & Stolz, Stéphanie, 2004. "Does capital regulation matter for bank behaviour? Evidence for German savings banks," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2004,03, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- William Francis & Matthew Osborne, 2009. "Bank regulation, capital and credit supply: Measuring the Impact of Prudential Standards," Occasional Papers 36, Financial Services Authority.
- Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
- Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1996.
"The international transmission of financial shocks: the case of Japan,"
96-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S, 1997. "The International Transmission of Financial Shocks: The Case of Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 495-505, September.
- Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1996. "The International Transmission of Financial Shocks: The Case of Japan," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 357, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Janet L. Yellen, 2010.
"Macroprudential supervision and monetary policy in the post-crisis world,"
551, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Janet L Yellen, 2011. "Macroprudential Supervision and Monetary Policy in the Post-crisis World," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 46(1), pages 3-12, January.
- Adam B. Ashcraft, 2008.
"Are Bank Holding Companies a Source of Strength to Their Banking Subsidiaries?,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(2-3), pages 273-294, 03.
- Adam B. Ashcraft, 2004. "Are bank holding companies a source of strength to their banking subsidiaries?," Staff Reports 189, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Ben S. Bernanke & Cara S. Lown, 1991. "The Credit Crunch," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(2), pages 205-248.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0486. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Publications Team)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.