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Fiscal Consolidation Programs and Income Inequality

Author

Listed:
  • Brinca, Pedro
  • Ferreira, Miguel H.
  • Franco, Francesco
  • Holter, Hans A.
  • Malafry, Laurence

Abstract

Following the Great Recession, many European countries implemented fiscal consolidation policies aimed at reducing government debt. Using three independent data sources and three different empirical approaches, we document a strong positive relationship between higher income inequality and stronger recessive impacts of fiscal consolidation programs across time and place. To explain this finding, we develop a life-cycle, overlapping generations economy with uninsurable labor market risk. We calibrate our model to match key characteristics of a number of European economies, including the distribution of wages and wealth, social security, taxes and debt, and study the effects of fiscal consolidation programs. We find that higher income risk induces precautionary savings behavior, which decreases the proportion of credit-constrained agents in the economy. Credit-constrained agents have less elastic labor supply responses to fiscal consolidation achieved through either tax hikes or public spending cuts, and this explains the relationship between income inequality and the impact of fiscal consolidation programs. Our model produces a cross-country correlation between inequality and the fiscal consolidation multipliers, which is quite similar to that in the data.

Suggested Citation

  • Brinca, Pedro & Ferreira, Miguel H. & Franco, Francesco & Holter, Hans A. & Malafry, Laurence, 2017. "Fiscal Consolidation Programs and Income Inequality," MPRA Paper 82705, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:82705
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brinca, Pedro & Holter, Hans A. & Krusell, Per & Malafry, Laurence, 2016. "Fiscal multipliers in the 21st century," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 53-69.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal Consolidation; Income Inequality; Fiscal Multipliers; Public Debt; Income Risk;

    JEL classification:

    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General

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