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The Fiscal Multiplier

Author

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  • Hagedorn, Marcus
  • Manovskii, Iourii
  • Mitman, Kurt

Abstract

We measure the size of the fiscal multiplier using a heterogeneous-agent model with incomplete markets, capital and rigid prices and wages. The environment encompasses the essential elements necessary for a quantitative analysis of fiscal policy. First, output is partially demand-determined due to pricing frictions in product and labor markets, so that a fiscal stimulus increases aggregate demand. Second, incomplete markets deliver a realistic distribution of dynamic consumption and investment responses to stimulus policies across the population. These elements give rise to the standard textbook Keynesian-cross logic which, and unlike conventional wisdom would suggest, is significantly reinforced in our dynamic forward looking model. We find that market incompleteness is key to determining the size of the fiscal multiplier, which is uniquely determined in our model for any combination of fiscal and monetary policies of interest. The multiplier is 1.34 if deficit-financed and 0.61 if contemporaneously tax-financed for a pegged nominal interest rate, with similar values in a liquidity trap. If monetary policy follows a Taylor rule, the numbers drop to 0.66 and 0.54, respectively. We elucidate the importance of market incompleteness for our results and contrast them to models featuring complete markets or hand-to-mouth consumers.

Suggested Citation

  • Hagedorn, Marcus & Manovskii, Iourii & Mitman, Kurt, 2019. "The Fiscal Multiplier," CEPR Discussion Papers 13529, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:13529
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marcus Hagedorn, 2016. "A Demand Theory of the Price Level," 2016 Meeting Papers 941, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    2. Brinca, Pedro & Holter, Hans A. & Krusell, Per & Malafry, Laurence, 2016. "Fiscal multipliers in the 21st century," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 53-69.
    3. Dupor, Bill & Karabarbounis, Marios & Kudlyak, Marianna & Mehkari, M. Saif, 2018. "Regional Consumption Responses and the Aggregate Fiscal Multiplier," Working Paper Series 2018-4, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    4. Gaston Navarro & Axelle Ferriere, 2016. "The Heterogeneous Effects of Government Spending: It's All About Taxes," 2016 Meeting Papers 1286, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    5. Adrien Auclert, 2019. "Monetary Policy and the Redistribution Channel," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 109(6), pages 2333-2367, June.
    6. Janice Eberly & Sergio Rebelo & Nicolas Vincent, 2008. "Investment and Value: A Neoclassical Benchmark," Cahiers de recherche 08-03, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.
    7. Greg Kaplan & Giovanni L. Violante, 2014. "A Model of the Consumption Response to Fiscal Stimulus Payments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(4), pages 1199-1239, July.
    8. Christian Bayer & Ralph Luetticke & Lien Pham‐Dao & Volker Tjaden, 2019. "Precautionary Savings, Illiquid Assets, and the Aggregate Consequences of Shocks to Household Income Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 87(1), pages 255-290, January.
    9. Erceg, Christopher J. & Henderson, Dale W. & Levin, Andrew T., 2000. "Optimal monetary policy with staggered wage and price contracts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 281-313, October.
    10. Wouter Den Haan & Pontus Rendahl & Markus Riegler, 2015. "Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals," Discussion Papers 1521, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).
    11. Hagedorn, Marcus, 2016. "A Demand Theory of the Price Level," CEPR Discussion Papers 11364, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Nils Gornemann & Keith Kuester & Makoto Nakajima, 2012. "Monetary policy with heterogeneous agents," Working Papers 12-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    13. repec:eee:moneco:v:102:y:2019:i:c:p:53-69 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Boppart, Timo & Krusell, Per & Mitman, Kurt, 2018. "Exploiting MIT shocks in heterogeneous-agent economies: the impulse response as a numerical derivative," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 68-92.
    2. Paweł Kopiec, 2018. "Employment prospects and the propagation of fiscal stimulus," NBP Working Papers 296, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    3. Henrique S. Basso & Omar Rachedi, 2018. "The young, the old, and the government: demographics and fiscal multipliers," Working Papers 1837, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    4. Kopiec, Pawel, 2019. "Household Heterogeneity and the Value of Government Spending Multiplier: an Analytical Characterization," MPRA Paper 93499, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal Multiplier; incomplete markets; liquidity trap; sticky prices;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • E63 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy

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