Politique Commerciale, Qualité et Environnement: une Application aux Négociations Commerciales entre l’Union Européenne et le Mercosur
The European Union and Mercosur have started negotiations in 1995 with the signature of the “EU-Mercosur Interregional Framework Co-operation Agreement”. In spite of sixteen round of negotiations and a propitious textbook for trade relationships (complementary intra and inter-sectoral, historical links, common culture, languages and tastes), they have not managed to achieve a successful bilateral trade agreement, and only political and co-operation chapters have experienced major progresses. Many reasons, such as the interdependence between the bilateral and multilateral negotiations or their conflict-laden issues in agricultural liberalization, may explain why these negotiations have been stalled. Each chapter of this dissertation addresses one important question linked to the EUMercosur negotiations. The first chapter analyzes the consequences of a EU-Mercosur agreement under different baselines (Venezuela accession to Mercosur and plausible outcomes of the Doha Round) using the MIRAGE CGE dynamic model. The second chapter presents a methodological contribution for tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) modeling in a CGE framework and highlights the possible biases linked to the lack of TRQ mechanisms. Chapter 3 addresses the question of the typical Alchian-Allen effect by introducing complex policy instruments (TRQs, composite tariffs) used in European agricultural protection. The last chapter analyze the rationale for large importing and exporting countries (environmental and welfare impacts) to negotiate a selective liberalization for Environmentally Preferable Products (EPPs), which could represent a rewarding niche market for exporters in the Mercosur.
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