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Informal Labour and Credit Markets: A Survey

Author

Listed:
  • Batini, Nicoletta

    (IMF and University of Surrey)

  • Kim, Young-Bae

    (University of Surrey)

  • Levine, Paul

    (University of Surrey)

  • Lotti, Emanuela

    (University of Surrey)

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on the informal economy, focusing first on empirical findings and then on existing approaches to modelling informality within both partial and general equilibrium environments. We concentrate on labour and credit markets, since these tend to be most affected by informality. The phenomenon is particularly important in emerging and other developing economies, given their high degrees of informal labour and financial services and the implications these have for the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy. We emphasize the need for dynamic general equilibrium (DGE) and ultimately dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models for a full understanding of the costs, benefits and policy implications of informality. The survey shows that the literature on informality is quite patchy, and that there are several unexplored areas left for research.

Suggested Citation

  • Batini, Nicoletta & Kim, Young-Bae & Levine, Paul & Lotti, Emanuela, 2011. "Informal Labour and Credit Markets: A Survey," Working Papers 11/94, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:npf:wpaper:11/94
    Note: Working Paper 94, 2011
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    Cited by:

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    2. Petr Huber & Ulugbek Rahimov, 2014. "Formal and Informal Sector Wage Differences in Transition Economies: Evidence from Tajikistan," MENDELU Working Papers in Business and Economics 2014-48, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    3. Sarra Ben Yahmed & Pamela Bombarda, 2020. "Gender, Informal Employment and Trade Liberalization in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 34(2), pages 259-283.
    4. Batini, Nicoletta & Levine, Paul & Lotti, Emanuela & Yang, Bo, 2011. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Presence of Informal Labour Markets," Working Papers 11/97, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    5. Nicoletta Batini & Paul Levine & Emanuela Lotti & Bo Yang, 2011. "Informality, Frictions and Monetary Policy," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0711, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    6. Bouwe R. Dijkstra, 2011. "Good and Bad Equilibria with the Informal Sector," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 167(4), pages 668-685, December.
    7. Michele Benvenuti & Luca Casolaro & Emanuele Ciani, 2017. "Informal loans, liquidity constraints and local credit supply: evidence from Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1099, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    8. Alberola, Enrique & Urrutia, Carlos, 2020. "Does informality facilitate inflation stability?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(C).
    9. Paul Levine, 2012. "Monetary policy in an uncertain world: probability models and the design of robust monetary rules," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 5(1), pages 70-88, April.
    10. María José Arteaga Garavito, 2016. "Justicia, Redistribución y Evasión Fiscal," Graduate theses (Spanish) TESG 005, CIDE, División de Economía.
    11. Alina Malkova & Klara Sabirianova Peter & Jan Svejnar, 2021. "Labor Informality and Credit Market Accessibility," Papers 2102.05803, arXiv.org.
    12. Paul Castillo B. & Carlos Montoro Ll., 2012. "Inflation Dynamics in the Presence of Informal Labour Markets," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 15(1), pages 4-31, April.
    13. Vasco J. Gabriel & Paul Levine & Joseph Pearlman & Bo Yang, 2010. "An Estimated DSGE Model of the Indian Economy," NIPE Working Papers 29/2010, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    14. Harold Vásquez & María del Mar Castaños, 2018. "Knowledge, Information, and Financial Decisions: Why Do People Choose to Finance from Informal Credit Markets?," Investigación Conjunta-Joint Research, in: María José Roa García & Diana Mejía (ed.), Financial Decisions of Households and Financial Inclusion: Evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 279-308, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
    15. Lahcen, Mohammed Ait, 2014. "DSGE models for developing economies: an application to Morocco," MPRA Paper 63404, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Mohammed Aït Lahcen, 2017. "Informality and the long run Phillips curve," ECON - Working Papers 248, Department of Economics - University of Zurich, revised Dec 2018.
    17. Ademola Abimbola. O & Ben-Caleb Egbide & Adegboyegun Adekunle. E & Eluyela Damilola. F & Falaye Adebanjo. J & Ajayi Abiodun. S., 2020. "Rotating and Savings Credit Association (ROSCAs): A Veritable Tool for Enhancing the Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises in Nigeria," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 10(2), pages 189-199, February.
    18. Catalina Granda & Franz Hamann, 2015. "Informality, Saving and Wealth Inequality," Borradores de Economia 873, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    19. Lapukeni, Angella-Faith, 2015. "Financial Inclusion, ICBT And The Role Of ICT In COMESA," MPRA Paper 75631, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Sep 2015.
    20. Nicoletta Batini & Paul Levine & Emanuela Lotti, 2011. "The Costs and Benefits of Informality," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0211, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    21. Giuseppe Ciccarone & Francesco Giuli & Enrico Marchetti, 2016. "Search frictions and labor market dynamics in a real business cycle model with undeclared work," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 62(3), pages 409-442, August.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Informal economy ; Labour market ; Search-matching models;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles

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