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The Thai Rural Credit System: Public Subsidies, Private Information, and Segmented Markets

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  • Siamwalla, Ammar, et al

Abstract

Thailand has sought to increase farmers' access to credit by government intervention. In 1966 it created a government agricultural bank to lend solely to farm households, and beginning in the late 1970s it required commerical banks to lend heavily in the rural sector, either directly or by making deposits in the agricultural bank. The result was an enormous expansion of credit in the rural sector. But because formal lenders were either unable or unwilling to solve the information problems involved in the broad range of rural credit transactions, the informal credit sector (which charged interest rates many times higher than the formal sector) continued to thrive. Using household surveys and surveys of moneylenders, this article provides a detailed analysis of the ways in which lenders in the informal sector have solved the information problems of providing credit. The authors argue that the informal sector in competitive, and that high interest rates reflect high information costs, not the scarcity of funds. Copyright 1990 by Oxford University Press.

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  • Siamwalla, Ammar, et al, 1990. "The Thai Rural Credit System: Public Subsidies, Private Information, and Segmented Markets," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 271-295, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:4:y:1990:i:3:p:271-95
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    Cited by:

    1. Adeola F. Adenikinju & Olugboyega Oyeranti, 1999. "Characteristics and Behaviour of African Factor Markets and Market Institutions and Their Consequences for Economic Growth," CID Working Papers 31A, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    2. Menkhoff, Lukas & Neuberger, Doris & Rungruxsirivorn, Ornsiri, 2012. "Collateral and its substitutes in emerging markets’ lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 817-834.
    3. Nagarajan, Geetha & Meyer, Richard L. & Hushak, Leroy J., 1995. "Segmentation in the informal credit markets: the case of the Philippines," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 171-181, August.
    4. Teh, Robert Jr., 1991. "Interlinked Credit Arrangements," Philippine Journal of Development JPD 1991 Vol. XVIII No. 1, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    5. Abalo Kodjo, 2016. "Sustainability of Microfinance Institutions in Togo," Research Papers RP_327, African Economic Research Consortium.
    6. Allen Blackman, 2001. "Why don't Lenders Finance High-Return Technological Change in Developing-Country Agriculture?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 1024-1035.
    7. Thierry Tressel, 1999. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Long Run Consequences of Capital Market Imperfections," CSEF Working Papers 20, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    8. Roumasset, James A., 2006. "The Economics of Agricultural Development: What Have We Learned?," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25598, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    9. Armendariz de Aghion, Beatriz, 1999. "On the design of a credit agreement with peer monitoring," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 79-104, October.
    10. Alberto Bisin & Danilo Guaitoli, 2004. "Moral Hazard and Nonexclusive Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, pages 306-328.
    11. Bose, Pinaki, 1998. "Formal-informal sector interaction in rural credit markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 265-280, August.
    12. Madestam, Andreas, 2014. "Informal finance: A theory of moneylenders," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 157-174.
    13. Coleman, Brett E., 1999. "The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 105-141, October.
    14. Menkhoff, Lukas & Suwanaporn, Chodechai, 2007. "10 Years after the crisis: Thailand's financial system reform," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 4-20, February.
    15. Dorfleitner, Gregor & Oswald, Eva-Maria, 2016. "Repayment behavior in peer-to-peer microfinancing: Empirical evidence from Kiva," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 45-59.
    16. Hoff, Karla & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1998. "Moneylenders and bankers: price-increasing subsidies in a monopolistically competitive market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 485-518, April.
    17. Menkhoff, Lukas & Rungruxsirivorn, Ornsiri, 2011. "Do Village Funds Improve Access to Finance? Evidence from Thailand," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 110-122, January.
    18. Meyer, Richard L. & Nagarajan, Geetha, 1992. "An Assessment of the Role of Informal Finance in the Development Process," 1991 Conference, August 22-29, 1991, Tokyo, Japan 183352, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    19. Rajeev, Meenakshi & Vani, B P & Bhattacharjee, Manojit, 2012. "Nature and Dimensions of Farmers’ Indebtedness in India," MPRA Paper 42358, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. repec:eee:wdevel:v:98:y:2017:i:c:p:338-350 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Coleman, Brett E., 2006. "Microfinance in Northeast Thailand: Who benefits and how much?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1612-1638, September.
    22. Njagi, Njeru Timothy, 2012. "An Investigation into the Possibility of a Rice Green Revolution in Sub Saharan Africa: Lessons from the MWEA Irrigation Scheme in Kenya," Dissertations-Doctoral 207754, AgEcon Search.
    23. Nagarajan, Geetha & Meyer, Richard L. & Hushak, Leroy J., 1995. "Segmentation in the informal credit markets: the case of the Philippines," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 12(2), August.
    24. Kemper, Niels & Ha, Luu Viet & Klump, Rainer, 2015. "Property Rights and Consumption Volatility: Evidence from a Land Reform in Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 107-130.
    25. Aeggarchat Sirisankanan, 2013. "Do agricultural households share risks in Thailand? Evidence from Thai household socio-economic panel survey data," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 20(2), pages 89-108, December.

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